The Origins of the Deep State in North America

As between the three possibilities of the future: 1. Closer Imperial Union, 2. Union with the U.S. and 3. Independence, I believe definitely that No. 2 is the real danger. I do not think the Canadians themselves are aware of it… they are wonderfully immature in political reflection on the big issues, and hardly realize how powerful the influences are… On the other hand, I see little danger to ultimate imperial unity in Canadian ‘nationalism’. On the contrary I think the very same sentiment makes a great many especially of the younger Canadians vigorously, and even bumptuously , assertive of their independence, proud and boastful of the greatness and future of their country, and so forth, would lend themselves, tactfully handled, to an enthusiastic acceptance of Imperial unity on the basis of ‘partner-states’. This tendency is, therefore, in my opinion rather to be encouraged, not only as safeguard against ‘Americanization’, but as actually making, in the long run, for a Union of ‘all the Britains’.” [1]

-Lord Alfred Milner, 1909

CLICK HERE FOR Part one:  The Rise of the Round Table Movement and the Sad Case of Canada (1864-1945)

Prologue

Canada’s history has remained clouded in misinformation and outright lies for over 200 years, while basic truths which were once well understood by leading statesmen a century past are now treated as little more than myth or “conspiracy theory”. Yet as the above quote written by the pen of Lord Alfred Milner indicates, the crafting of the Canadian identity has been bought for the price of a national soul. The greatest obstacle to Canadian sovereignty today is found in the fact that Canada’s synthetic identity has been constructed over the past decades with the intention of obstructing the establishment upon this earth of a world of sovereign republics, which was and still is the outgrowth of the success of the American Revolution in 1783. To do so, we must investigate how the Anglo Dutch oligarchy has played through such institutions as the Rhodes Trust, Fabian Society, and Round Table Movement. These structures have played a key role in mis-shaping every key standard of economic, political, cultural and scientific behaviour which has perverted western institutions to this very day and have come to be identified since the election of Donald Trump as “the Deep State”.

The Deep State: How an…
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Part one of our story focused upon the creation of these institutions and their methods of penetrating their networks throughout influential institutions of Canada from 1865 to 1943, and the evolution of the Round Table into the Royal Institute for International Affairs (RIIA) in 1919. American branches were created in 1920 with the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) and Institute of Pacific Relations, while a Canadian branch was established in 1928 with the Canadian Institute for International Affairs (CIIA). Key Canadian patriots resistant to the RIIA’s plans were also introduced in the form of “Laurier Liberals” O.D. Skelton and Ernest Lapointe, both of whom aided in influencing the highly malleable Prime Minister William Mackenzie King towards the Canadian nationalist cause, greater cooperation with American Patriots such as Franklin Roosevelt and away from the RIIA’s plans for world government under the League of Nations. With the mysterious deaths of Skelton and Lapointe in 1941, all such resistance melted away and Canadian foreign policy become fully infected by Rhodes Trust/ Fabian agents of the CIIA.

This second segment will address the important 1943-1972 destruction of humanist potential leading up to the reforms implemented by CIIA-assets Lester B. Pearson and Pierre Elliot Trudeau in their role in advancing Milner’s program for a new synthetic nationalism.

The Attack on Post-War Potential Begins 1945-1951

By the end of the war, Canada’s productive capacity had risen to unimaginable heights and the vision of unbounded progress free of imperial monetarism was not far off from realization. The relationship between Canada and the United States was at an all-time high, with exploding trade, and purchasing power that had multiplied threefold from 1939 to 1956. The authority and power won by C.D. Howe was continued into the following 12 years of Canadian progress first, as Minister of Reconstruction (1944-1948) then as Minister of Trade and Commerce (1948-1957). When Howe realized that his resistance to Canada’s participation in the unjust Korean war of 1950 would not work, he changed gears, and took advantage of the situation by renewing his broad war powers, once again allowing himself to lead Canada’s economy top down, resulting in the great projects with America such as the St Lawrence Seaway, the Avro Arrow CF-105 supersonic interceptor, the TransCanada-U.S. natural gas pipeline and especially the civilian use of nuclear power shaped by Canada’s unique CANDU technology. [2]

The secret to Canada’s progress during and after the war continued to be the National Research Council (NRC), re-organized and rehabilitated after years of incompetence under its former President General Andrew McNaughton. The NRC was a flexible top down organization run by one of Howe’s brightest engineering students C.J. Mackenzie who went on to become the first President of Atomic Energy Canada Ltd (AECL).

With similar mission-oriented organizational structures having organically formed in the USA during war, the NRC was celebrated and studied as a model for countries the world over. The leaders of this institution fought not only to advance nuclear power in Canada in order to escape the limits of fossil fuels and accelerate the next breakthrough to thermonuclear fusion, but also led the fight to provide their technology to underdeveloped countries such as India and Pakistan which were yearning to break free of their British colonial masters [3]. The NRC also successfully led breakthroughs in radio astronomy, oceanography and industry. Its basic objective can be summarized in the following model:

(1)  Maximize the density of discoveries within a cross country system of self-financed and self-organized intramural NRC laboratories.

(2)  Translate those discoveries into new technological applications and machine tools.

(3)  Apply these technologies as efficiently as possible into the industrial productive system to increase the productive powers of labour.

(4)  Force university curricula and behaviour to adapt by such creative upshifts as quickly as possible ensuring that no fixed/formulaic patterns of thought could encrust themselves upon the minds of students or professors.

Dexter White and Wallace

The Cultural/Economic/Scientific factors of Canada’s post-war dynamic were on a new trajectory of true independence, founded on a commitment to progress which the British Empire now mobilized all of its energy to destroy. The great fear of Lord Milner laid out in 1909 of “union with the United States” guided by unbounded scientific and technological progress was now underway, peaking with a 1948 call for a North American customs union advocated by Howe and leading FDR statesmen in the United States that had not yet been purged by the Cold War witch hunt led by Senator McCarthy. Sadly, now under the vast influence of the British Empire’s mind control, one of Mackenzie King’s last acts in office was the destruction of this proposition. After King’s 1950 death, C.D. Howe continued on as Minister of Trade and Commerce under King’s successor Louis St. Laurent (1948-1957) [4].

Having ensured that FDR’s postwar vision for a world of sovereign nation states would not come to fruition after his untimely death in April 1945, the first of a series of ideological barrages was hammered into Canadian and U.S. policy beginning with the installation of Wall Street tool Harry Truman as President, and with him the advent of the “Truman Doctrine” centering on the Rhodes-Milner agenda of Anglo-American Empire guided by Churchill’s design of “British brains and American brawn”. While FDR was still alive, his allies led by Harry Dexter White and Henry Wallace were capable of fending off John Maynard Keynes’ attempts to structure the Bretton Woods agreements according to his own twisted logic of a one world currency steered by the Nazi affiliated Bank for International Settlements and Bank of England (of which Keynes was a Director). However, after FDR’s death, the last major beachhead of resistance to British recolonization melted.

The Anglo-American “special relationship” was quickly established by Truman bringing American foreign policy quickly under the control of the RIIA networks beginning with Truman’s unnecessary utilization of two of America’s only three nuclear bombs on the already defeated Japan which set the foundations for the Korean War [5]. This policy was ushered in by Sir Winston Churchill’s 1946 “Iron Curtain” speech in Fulton, Missouri which officially opened the age of the Cold War, setting a fear based dynamic of tension that resulted in a purging of FDR allies from positions of influence, and an influx of British operatives into high prominence the world over.

The Chicago Tribune’s Cassandra Sounds the Alarm

In 1951, the enormously influential Massey-Lévesque Royal Commission attempted to first launch an attack upon the “American invasion” of media (print, radio, television and cinema) which was taking over the Canadian psyche. One of the primary demands of the 1951 report called for an emergency ban on U.S. media to keep “dangerous” American cultural influences from contaminating Canada’s British traditions with the following words:

“Few Canadians realize the extent of this dependence… our lazy, even abject imitation of them [American institutions] has caused an uncritical acceptance of ideas and assumptions which are alien to our tradition”.  [6]

What were these types of alien ideas which concerned the British Empire so much at this important period of historical change? To get a sense of the fear which Massey and his British masters felt regarding the “low brow” American journalism being read by Canadians, it is useful to take a sample of a 1951 article written by journalist Eugene Griffin “Canada Offers Fine Field to Rhodes’ Wards” published as one of a series of 16 explosive articles between July 15-31 in the Chicago Tribune:

“Scholars and other British educated Canadians are in a unique position to serve Britain through Canada’s influence on Washington as a next door neighbour of the United States. Canada acts as a connecting link between England and the United States, helping to hold the neighbouring republic in line with the dominion’s mother country… When Gen. MacArthur displeased Britain and Canada by his efforts to win the Korean war, Canada’s Oxford educated minister for external affairs, Lester B. Pearson, complained that American-Canadian relations had become “difficult and delicate”. MacArthur was fired the next day… Pearson’s foreign office staff is packed with Rhodes scholars. There are 23 among 183 staff officers, or one out of every eight, who were educated at Oxford university, England, on the scholarships created by Cecil Rhodes, empire builder and diamond mogul who wanted the United States taken back into Britain’s fold [see Box]… Other Canadian foreign office members also were educated in England, although not as Rhodes scholars. Pearson went to Oxford (St. John’s, 1922) on a Massey scholarship, endowed by a Canadian millionaire… Norman A. Robertson, a Rhodes Scholar (Balliol, 1923) sometimes called the most brilliant member of the British trained inner circle in the government’s East Block, headquarters of the prime minister and the foreign office, is another important figure in Canada’s relations with Britain and the United States. He is clerk of the Privy Council and Secretary to the cabinet, and has been undersecretary of state and High Commissioner to Britain.”

Little could the writers of the Chicago Tribune then know that during the very summer of their writing, a young Fabian, having just returned home from his conditioning under Harold Laski’s mentorship at the London School of Economics was working at his first job in the Privy Council Office (PCO) under the watch of Rhodes Scholar and Privy Council Clerk Norman Robertson. That young Fabian went by the name Pierre Elliot Trudeau [7]. Working alongside Trudeau at the time in the PCO included his supervisor Gordon Robertson, a young Oxford man named Marc Lalonde and his friend Gerard Pelletier, all three of whom went on to play prominent roles in Trudeau’s powerful inner cabal 20 years later.

Upon returning to Montreal in 1951, Trudeau came under the control of F.R. Scott, Rhodes Scholar and co-founder of the League of Social Reconstruction (LSR) 20 years earlier. Trudeau’s celebrity as an enemy of Quebec Premier Maurice Duplessis was cultivated by these Rhodes networks through his publication Cité Libre which served to 1) brainwash young intellectuals according to the journal’s existential Catholic “personalist” philosophy of French philosophers Jacques Maritain and Emmanuel Mounier on the one side and 2) rally a populist attack on the Vatican-influenced Union Nationale (UN) government of Duplessis, Daniel Johnson Sr. and Paul Sauvé on the other [8]. This provincial government had made its renown not only for resisting British control over its destiny, but had also been a beachhead of resistance against eugenics laws then being implemented across the continent [9]. Trudeau worked in tandem with the creepy network of social engineers run from Laval University by Father George Henri Lévesque (co-chair of the Massey Commission), which exploded onto the scene in 1960 as the “Quiet Revolution” overthrow of the Union Nationale after two untimely heart attacks of UN leaders beginning with Duplessis in 1959, then followed by Paul Sauvé a mere nine months later.

Another personality whose celebrity was being created in tandem with Trudeau’s during the 1950s included Trudeau`s schoolboy chum, and British Intelligence asset René Lévesque, whose popular CBC radio show Point de Mire served to rally public opinion against the Duplessis regime and prepare the culture for the radically liberalizing reforms of the Quiet Revolution [10].

Huxley’s UNESCO Doctrine and Eugenics 

The guidelines for the post-1945 path to a New World Order were laid out clearly by Sir Julian Huxley in his 1946 UNESCO: Its Purpose and Its Philosophy:

 “The moral for UNESCO [United Nations Education, Science and Cultural Organization] is clear. The task laid upon it of promoting peace and security can never be wholly realised through the means assigned to it- education, science and culture. It must envisage some form of world political unity, whether through a single world government or otherwise, as the only certain means of avoiding war… in its educational programme it can stress the ultimate need for a world political unity and familiarize all peoples with the implications of the transfer of full sovereignty from separate nations to a world organization.” [11]

To what end would this “world political unity” be aimed? Several pages later, Huxley’s vision is laid out in all of its twisted detail:

“At the moment, it is probable that the indirect effect of civilization is dysgenic instead of eugenic, and in any case it seems likely that the dead weight of genetic stupidity, physical weakness, mental instability and disease proneness, which already exist in the human species will prove too great a burden for real progress to be achieved. Thus even though it is quite true that any radical eugenic policy will be for many years politically and psychologically impossible, it will be important for UNESCO to see that the eugenic problem is examined with the greatest care and that the public mind is informed of the issues at stake so that much that is now unthinkable may at least become thinkable.” [12]

How could “the unthinkable” application of a practice which Hitler had made repulsive to humanity, become adopted by a society which had a faith in progress and unbounded creativity so incompatible with social Darwinism? Huxley’s own life’s decision to become a founding member of the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) in 1961 alongside Bilderberg Group founder Prince Bernhard and Prince Philip provides us a clue. It is no coincidence that Huxley’s role as President of the British Eugenics Society (1959-1962) also overlapped his co-creation of the World Wildlife Fund (WWF).

The only way such a genocidal policy as eugenics, masquerading as “objective” science, could be readopted by humanity was through the dissociation of mind from matter, via the breaking of “subjective values” from “objective facts”. The method chosen was a worshipping of the ugly and irrational in the aesthetics such that judgement could no longer be governed by a sense of truth and beauty, while the “cold and logical” was separated from the artistic and kept in its own cold dark mechanical universe accessible only through statistical methods of thought. This is how the modern school system has been divided into two different synthetic worlds of Arts and Sciences. The operatives chosen to carry out this policy were Massey’s ally Sir Kenneth Clark and Sir John Maynard Keynes who led the scientific management of culture in Britain [13]. The mental cage chosen to schism “values” from “facts” in managing human affairs was named “systems analysis”.

A major goal of the Massey Commission and its UNESCO design, was to create structures that would elevate the Humanities and Social Sciences to the highest pedestal of knowledge (and financing), paving the road for the later acceptance of systems  8-a-Club of Rome King Peccei analysis to be used in the management of society. The person assigned to impose “systems” planning into political practice was the Lord President of the British Empire’s Scientific Secretariat Alexander King working through the Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC), (later to become the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in 1961). Under the OECD, King became Director General of Scientific Affairs and went on to co-found the Malthusian Club of Rome alongside Italian industrialist Aurelio Peccei in 1968 [14].

The CIIA’s Royal Commissions Deconstruct and Reconstruct the Synthetic Soul of Canada

The RIIA directed its various branches, and Rhodes Trust networks around the world to implement the New Eugenics project outlined by Julian Huxley in 1946. In Canada, the implementation process occurred between an intervals of 24 years and took the form of four CIIA-directed operations whose immense influence cannot be overstated. They were:

1) The Royal Commission into the Arts and Letters (1949-1951),

2) The Royal Commission on Economic Prospects for Canada (1955-1957),

3) The Royal Commission on Government Organization (1960-1963), and

4) The Senate Committee on Science Policy (1968-1972).

Each commission was designed with the effect of establishing new structures of thought upon policy makers in the domain of culture, economic and science policy which induced the blind acceptance of satanic policies of Malthusian eugenics masquerading as “environmentalism”, or the “science” of saving nature from civilization. A society imbued with a moral sense of Judeo-Christian ethic and love of progress, and strengthened by the Roosevelt-led fight against Hitler, would never accept Eugenics. A fact well known to the Anglo-Dutch oligarchy.

A Royal Commission, as the name implies is an invention of the British Empire which has been used for centuries in order to create the perception that top down structural changes in all aspects of government were “scientifically” and objectively achieved. The truth is that conclusions of such Commissions have always been pre-decided by the ruling oligarchy long before the Royal Commission’s experts were even formed. Usually spanning 2-3 years of studies by a clique of pre-selected “experts” in a given field, Royal Commissions produce voluminous data sets, hundreds of thousands of pages of information, and then summarize their findings and prescriptions in the form of several summary reports consisting of a 1-2 thousand pages. The sheer quantity of data associated with such reports is supposed to dissuade anyone from giving any respect to other countervailing opinion which challenge the Commission’s findings, with the assumption that unless everyone commits two years of their lives to a specialized study funded by millions of dollars and thousands of man hours, then their opinion could not be worth anything.

The Massey-Lévesque Commission: The First Wave of Attack 1949-1951

In Canada, Milner-protégé Vincent Massey was assigned the unique responsibility of leading the implementation of this multifaceted program which struck in a series of Royal Commissions organized entirely by agents of the CIIA. Massey’s role was carried out as the chairman of the already mentioned Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts, Letters and Sciences (1949-1951) alongside his co-chairman Father George Henri Lévesque, a social scientist and Dominican priest who is rightly credited as the intellectual godfather of the 1960-1966 “Quiet Revolution” which secularized the province of Quebec and brought in OECD educational reforms. All proposals sought by the end of this two year study were directed by the UNESCO agenda which Sir Julian Huxley laid out publicly in 1946 [15].

As Massey’s former assistant Karen Finlay wrote in The Force of Culture: Vincent Massey and Canadian Sovereignty, Massey’s lifelong governing principle was “principle of disinterest” whereby Massey argued that it is “intellectual detachment” which empowers someone to truly judge the aesthetic value of art [16]. Under the logic of UNESCO and Massey’s satanic formula, it is assumed that since personal “subjective” values pollute one’s judgements on “the beautiful and good’, it is only by disassociating oneself from pre-existing values, that we gain the ability to judge “good” and “bad” art in an “objective” and thus “true” fashion.

The severing of the subjective from the objective thusly also forces the denial of any pre-existing standards by which anything could be judged as intrinsically good or bad, and thus a ripe field of moral relativism can be harvested.  Evil may then run wild without any fear of being challenged. In other words, this is a complete denial of the existence of universal physical principles

The structures against universal physical principles which were proscribed in the Massey-Lévesque Commission involved the creation of a more powerful Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, a National Film Board, a National Library, a National Art Gallery, a National Art Bank, a Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, Federal financing of the education system in the humanities and social sciences, and Canada Council for the Arts modelled on Keynes’ semi-autonomous, government financed British template [17].

The Federal financing of the education system was vital for the Commission since it was the only way which OECD and UNESCO reforms could be ushered in without provincial resistance.  Pre-existing teaching practices emphasizing the Greek Classics, which treated students as if they had a soul, could only be dismantled efficiently under this top down restructuring, applied during the 1960s in which moral relativism, Darwinism, and “new math” increasingly replaced anything of substance. The horrendous explosion of modernist, abstract and banal art generously sponsored under the structures of Massey’s Canada Council (f.1957) gives one a sick sense of the spiritual disease with which the imperialists (and sadly their victims) are infected. Both federal control of education and the arts were necessary to pervert the principles guiding both, and establish the mental/spiritual infrastructure supportive of satanic programs of Malthusian population reduction as the new environmentalist eugenics was designed to be.

To amplify this spiritual disease, the Massey-Levesque Commission even proscribed the creation of a Canadian honours system such that oligarchical habits could more easily be cultivated in Canada [18]. The creation of the Canada Council took much longer than Massey would have liked, and its postponement was due largely to the resistance of the l’Union Nationale government of Quebec and its Vatican-steered Catholic Church. The powerful elements within the Quebec Catholic Church were among the only organized forces on the continent that had competently identified the satanic intentions underlying the OECD-UNESCO reforms being infiltrated into global educational and political systems.

It were for such reasons that Father Lévesque and his ideological offspring of social engineers and technocrats at the University Laval had become the bitter enemies of the Union Nationale government. The implementation of OECD educational reforms as prescribed by the Massey-Lévesque Commission were a primary focus of the Quiet Revolution. The task of applying the reforms was given in large part to two Rhodes Scholars: Jean Beetz and the creator of the Quebec Ministry of Education, Paul Gérin-Lajoie. Soon-to-become Prime Minister Pierre Elliot Trudeau played a key institutional role in this process as well in the Law Faculty at University Laval alongside Lalonde and Beetz.

With the creation of the Canada Council, the “scientific management” of culture, so necessary to elevate the ugly and banal into a position of respectable authority was ensured and the ground was thus laid for the next steps of the fascist takeover of Canada.

The Gordon Commission: The Second Wave of Attack 1955-1957

“Many Canadians are worried about such a large degree of economic decision-making being in the hands of non-residents [because it] might lead to economic domination by the United States and eventually to the loss of our political independence.” 

-1957 Gordon Commission Report [19]

The Massey-Lévesque Commission was followed systematically, by the Royal Commission on the Economic Prospects of Canada (1955-1957) chaired by Walter Lockhart Gordon, chairman of the National Executive Committee of the CIIA and head of the largest accounting firm in Canada Clarkson-Gordon Management. The Commission claimed that Canada’s sovereignty was threatened by American ownership of Canadian enterprise, and that drastic action to cut America off from the Canadian economy were absolutely necessary.

As historian Stephen Azzi demonstrated in his 2007 study Foreign Investment and the Paradox of Economic Nationalism [20], the claims made by the report were entirely fraudulent. The massive upshift in quality of life, electricity and social services due to American capital in Canada was not even addressed in the voluminous Gordon Commission reports. Thus the only relevant purpose of the report was to cultivate a culture of anti-Americanism, and establish political structures limiting foreign ownership of Canadian markets, and lower the potential living conditions of Canadians [21]. The biggest farce embedded in the Gordon Commission quote above, of course, which Azzi misses, is that there never was any political independence for Canada to lose to Americans in the first place, since it had never freed itself from the political and economic clutches of its British Mother.

Gordon went onto implement his own proposals after leading the cleansing of the Liberal Party of all C.D. Howe Liberals between 1957-1963 [22], becoming Finance Minister (1963-65) under his long-time puppet-on-loan from Vincent Massey, Lester Pearson, whom he himself selected as early as 1955 to run for leadership of the Liberal Party [23]. After his policies as Finance Minister failed, Gordon took over the post of President of the powerful Privy Council Office (1966-68) from his predecessor Maurice Lamontagne.

These two commissions were designed to “sound the alarm bells” against Canadian vulnerability to an imminent American imperial takeover of Canada’s culture and economic resources. Although no evidence was ever presented that American imperialism had any intention to take over Canada, the prescriptions to save Canada from economic and cultural Americanization involved both a negative and positive component: Negatively, each proposed the rapid implementation of quota systems/ tariff systems to limit foreign input of capital and media, while positively, proposing centralized structures to coordinate culture and economic management by a vast London-steered bureaucracy.  The already long controlled mass media outlets of Canada glamorized their findings and created a mass fear in the popular culture.

The effect of these two reports also amplified anti-Americanism to such a feverish pitch that a Canadian identity could be established on a fear-based negation, whereby Massey, Lévesque and Gordon following the prescription laid out by Lord Milner in 1909 crafted a blueprint for a “New Nationalism”. This counterfeit nationalism was wrapped up with a brand new national anthem and Canadian flag upon Lester B. Pearson’s Liberals becoming the government in 1963.

The Delphic perception of Canada’s sovereign status outside of the actual control of the British Empire had to be established for the next wave of Canada’s post-1963 role in trapping nations into the imperial spider’s web of International Monetary Fund conditionalities.

Unlike the flags of most countries, the noble Maple Leaf, as many Canadians have still yet to realize, has neither now nor ever signified anything whatsoever.

The Glassco Commission: The Third Wave of Attack 1960-1963

Once the Canadian cultural inferiority complex was amplified sufficiently by fear of American imperialism, the collective neurotic mindset was now ready for the next wave of the CIIA’s onslaught unleashed with the Royal Commission on Government Organization (1960-1963) chaired by Walter Gordon’s partner at Clarkson-Gordon, John Grant Glassco. Glassco was the son of William Grant, and nephew of Vincent Massey. This commission brought in a monetarist/accounting framework for managing a bureaucratic structure under the logic of “letting managers manage”. As its mission statement laid out: “This report examines the adequacy of existing arrangements for making economic and statistical services available for the formulation of policy, for administrative decisions, and for the service and enlightenment of the public.” [24]

A little later, the report laid out the belief that all problems with inefficiency in achieving policy objectives was due to the fact that there are too few economists and social scientists in controlling administrative positions of government: “..Very little can be done, or ought to be done, to discourage the movement of economists into higher administrative posts. Talented administrators are just as scarce as economists, and it would be a mistake for the public service to deny itself any fruitful source of good administrators.” [25]

In preparation for Finance Minister Walter Gordon’s 1963-65 implementation of his 1957 Royal Commission financial proposals, Glassco laid out the new necessary controlling structures to allow Gordon to cut off Canada from American investments, and choke off as much of America from Canada as possible when he wrote:  “The immediate concern is the development of a competent central economic staff within the Department of Finance, not to take over work done elsewhere but rather, under the direction of the Minister of Finance, to attend to the development of general economic policy for the government as a whole .” [26]

Finally, Glassco pushed for the UNESCO policy of amplifying the social sciences while attacking the “hard” sciences like physics and biology with the following: “The relatively slow development of economic research in Canadian universities, due to shortage of funds, bears on both the quantity and quality of the future supply of trained economists. While the government is spending scores of millions annually to support research in physics and biology, little financial assistance is given to research in the social sciences” [27]

The edict of “letting managers manage” was necessary if the appearance of democracy were to be maintained while the absolute control of society by an accounting priesthood was to be preserved. The commission’s reports called for the adoption of “horizontal” (aka: bottom up) planning which was to replace the archaic belief in “vertical” (aka: top down) intentions from elected officials to the process they were elected to preside over, as was the common practice of the NRC and its administrators.

Ironically, while bottom up planning according to accounting standards was pushed, central control through the Treasury Board was also promoted by Glassco. This prescription would ensure that only a small coterie would ever fully have their minds on the whole, while every other department were too busy focusing on hyper-specialized compartmentalized parts to think about the whole.

While the NRC and its leadership such as C.J. Mackenzie, the student of the late C.D. Howe and the late Dr. E.W.R. Steacy were vigorously attacked by the Glassco Commission, the overhaul which Glassco prescribed involved the centralized planning of science policy according to budgetary constraints under the Treasury and a Science Secretariat. These positions were to become completely subservient to the control of bureaucrats specialized in accounting and monetary economics degrees advanced through the “social sciences and humanities” programs outlined by UNESCO. With this new system of management and its anal adherence to Planning-Programming-Budgeting (PPB), the problems associated with the governments such as those of C.D. Howe and later John Diefenbaker (1957-1963) which intended to actually get something done for the improvement of the nation, could not occur [28]. This systemic reform was not an end in and of itself however, and was merely a necessary stepping stone towards actualizing a system of thinking which would accept the linear language of “Systems Analysis” as a guide for conceptualizing the management of humanity under laws of entropy, constrained by the limits of fixed resources.

The Glassco Report’s prescriptions for policy overhaul were to be implemented fully by Trudeau several years later.

As a reward for a job well done, Glassco was promoted from Executive Vice-President of Brazilian Traction, Light and Power Co. to President in 1963.Under this position, the overthrow of the nationalist Brazilian President João Goulart  was effected via a military coup d’état [29]. The free market pillaging of Brazil created a model applied even more aggressively a decade later with Henry Kissinger’s orchestration of the Pinochet regime’s coup in Chile.

The Lamontagne Commission’s 1967-1973 Program for Genocide



History of the Deep State
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The last wave of this CIIA-run Milner Project for a new nationalism (at least insofar as major structural reforms were concerned), took the form of the Senate Special Committee on Science Policy (1967-1972), more popularly known as the Lamontagne Commission after its chairman Senator Maurice Lamontagne [30]. This commission had the distinction of being the most transparent in its satanic intention to ban creativity and impose Malthusian constraints un-naturally upon the management of human affairs. The report is especially relevant as it begins with the acknowledgement of the American System of Political Economy, which it then attempts to destroy by lies and ridicule:

“During the early part of the 19th century, Great Britain and to a lesser extent France were fast developing industrial technology and finding ways of fruitfully exploiting science. Later on the United States moved from technical backwardness to such a level that it could begin exporting to the “advanced” European countries manufacturing techniques and machine tools so different that the whole approach became known as the “American System”. An English productivity team that visited the United States in 1853 to study this ‘system’ concluded that “men served God in America, in all seriousness and sincerity, through striving for economic efficiency.” [31]

By identifying the fact of creativity’s relationship to technological advance, and technological advance’s relationship to increased growth and productivity, embedded self-consciously in the American System founded by U.S. Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton and his mentor Benjamin Franklin, Lamontagne, a student of George Henri Lévesque and key member of the Gordon Commission twelve years earlier, established his commitment to defend the principle of empire. The most active defender of the American System during the 20th and 21st century, Lyndon LaRouche (1922-2019) has subsequently described contrast between the forces active today the following terms:

“The most readily accessed example of the contrast of good to evil in modern times, has been typified not only by the goodness of the anti-monetarist principle on which the original Constitution of the United States of America was premised; it was also the same principle which had been adopted earlier by the Massachusetts Bay Colony. That principle, which modern society should trace back to such Renaissance geniuses as Nicholas of Cusa, has been demonstrated through the crucial quality of a leading contributing role specific to the included role of U.S. Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton.”  [32]

Lamontagne’s allegiance to the monetarist forces opposing the American System, can be clearly seen when Lamontagne let his true intention shine forth when he wrote in vol. 2 of his 3 volume report:

“It is becoming apparent, however, that nature is not as passive as we thought, that it has its own laws and can revenge itself, once its own equilibrium has been disrupted… Nature imposes definite constraints on technology itself and if man persists in ignoring them the net effect of his action in the long run can be to reduce rather than to increase nature’ potential as a provider of resources and habitable space… But then, an obvious question arises: How can we stop man’s creativeness?” [33]

Thus, Lamontagne has established that it is man’s creativity itself that must be stopped if the supposed “fixed” equilibrium of nature will remain unchanged by technology! This is the root morality of the current global environmentalist religion which Lamontagne was at the forefront of unleashing.  Since Lamontagne admits that his “ideal” solution of destroying man’s creative impulse is itself an impossibility, like the Zeus of Aeschylus’s Prometheus Bound, he never the less finds a resolution to this problem by introducing a perverse alternative when he wrote

“How can we proclaim a moratorium on technology? It is impossible to destroy existing knowledge; impossible to paralyze man’s inborn desire to learn, to invent and to innovate… In the final analysis we find that technology is merely a tool created by man in pursuit of his infinite aspirations and is not the significant element invading the natural environment. It is material growth itself that is the source of conflict between man and nature” [32]

Thus creativity and its fruits of technological progress are acceptable only IF they reduce the assumed conflict between man and nature posited by Lamontagne!  “Bad” technology in Lamontagne’s formulation, has the effect of increasing humanity’s powers of productivity and thus increase the entropy in his fixed ecosystem-based economy. If, on the other hand, we promote technologies of a low energy flux density form, such as windmills, solar panels and biodiesel, which lead to the reduction of man’s powers to exist, then technology can be defined as a “good” thing.

This is the genocidal intention of the British Empire expressed in all its nakedness, which has been the primary target of American statesman and founder of the science of Physical Economy, Lyndon LaRouche. By the time of the Lamontagne Commission, LaRouche had already risen to world prominence as the only effective challenger to the British monarchy`s genocidal agenda of lowering the energy flux density underlying society`s material and intellectual existence. LaRouche has subsequently fought for 50 years to defend the truth of mankind`s scientifically verifiable relationship to the universe, as being governed by everything which Lamontagne and his Anglo-Dutch masters hate: mankind`s necessity for unbounded scientific and technological progress expressed as the unending obligation to increase the productive powers of labour.

The concept which LaRouche has used to guide mankind`s mandate for progress, is the increase of energy flux density of cycling of atoms through the biosphere and human economy, shaped by upgrades of new platforms of technologies. Compare LaRouche`s view on energy-flux density with the cynical rubbish promoted expressed by Lamontagne above:

“The rates of increase of energy-flux density in the concentrations of increasing rates of intensity of power per capita, must be now be restarted, and also accelerated; otherwise, the death-rates throughout the world are now already accelerating at rates which must be identified as a global trend in planetary human genocide… The nominal trend in rising rates of genocide is not the only aspect of this threatening trend. The inability to maintain a correlated set of rates of increase of the energy-flux density of the human persons per capita, must be correlated with the falling rate of intellectual development of the typical U.S.A. or European citizen. The so-called “green doctrine” is a doctrine of practice which results in not only human genocide, but a decadence in the mental powers, and also the relative sanity, of the individual human being.” [34]

What LaRouche is describing is the simple fact that without a constant increase of energy-flux density of the system and each individual within that system, then the domination by a green doctrine which sets “value” upon forms of energy and behaviour which reduce mankind’s power to accomplish work is destined to exterminate the population trapped within that system. The effect of destroying the means to increase the energy flux density of the system (ie: Creativity) means that a policy of genocide is the only alternative for a ruling oligarchy!

How would such a logic of genocide be accepted by citizens and administrators who are animated by the inspired faith in scientific and technological progress as was still largely the case during the late 1960s? For this task, Lamontagne had already let the cat out of the bag when he wrote in vol. 1:

“If general science policy is to accomplish its crucial role effectively, it must also develop a system of control, to make sure that the strategy will be respected in the detailed decision-making process and review mechanisms… Perhaps more than any other sector of policy, science policy requires the careful application of systems analysis.” [35]

With the linear language of systems analysis, the minds of those trying to manage any intrinsically non-linear process became sufficiently crippled with statistics and compartmentalization that their ability to see either 1) a whole top down process, or 2) the tragic consequences of their own foolish beliefs, was destroyed. Similar to the logic adopted ten years earlier with the state-run Canada Council which provided top down grants to “certain types” of art, music and social theories compatible to an oligarchy, though abhorrent to natural human sentiment, the Lamontagne Commission called passionately for a centralized financing and planning body in order to fund those “types” of applied technologies and pure research which were compatible with the genocidal aims of an oligarchy, but would never be accepted by a society imbued with even a little common sense and human compassion. In this spirit Lamontagne exclaimed that:

“The creation of a dynamic and balanced science organization is an urgent necessity. A main centre of coordination and financing of science policy is extremely desirable. The time has come to create a federal department of scientific affairs”. [36]

Lamontagne is referring of course to the creation of the Canadian Ministry of State for Science and Technology (MOSST) which was modelled on the British system, and kept under the full control of the Treasury Board and its balanced accounting system. MOSST and the Treasury Board redirected Canadian science into the dark ages and its new emphasis on “ecosystems management” and “conservation” instead of nation building. The “new wisdom” advocated by Lamontagne demanded that science now be shackled to “market demand” instead of future orientation.

Enter Trudeau’s Club of Rome

After the Rhodes Trust-directed ouster of the well intentioned, but incredibly naïve Conservative Prime Minister John Diefenbaker in 1963 [37], all of the measures proposed by these four Commissions were enforced vigorously by Lester B. Pearson and the Rhodes Trust/CIIA networks that had risen to prominence under him, and then fully by Pearson’s replacement… the former Justice Minister Pierre Elliot Trudeau in 1968. Along with Trudeau came fellow CIIA-assets from the Privy Council Office Gerard Pelletier, and another disciple of Father Lévesque named Jean Marchand, both of whom were active with Trudeau’s Cité Libre. The `new reformers` of Quebec became the `new reformers` of Canada.

THE DEEP STATE RIDES A…
Stephen Edward Browne
Check Amazon for Pricing.

Under Trudeau, the application of “systems analysis” as a cover for population reduction and fascism were fully carried into the top down management of government on all levels, and the Club of Rome of Alexander King, and his Canadian collaborators such as Maurice Strong, Maurice Lamontagne, Roland Mitchener (former Governor General) [38], Michael Pitfield (Personal Aid to Trudeau and head of Privy Council Office), Alastair Gillespie (Rhodes Scholar, and 1st MOSST), C.R. Nixon (Privy Council Office), Marc Lalonde (Rhodes Scholar, Trudeau advisor and head of Prime Ministers Office), Ronald Ritchie (National Advisor), Rennie Whitehead (Asst. Sec. to MOSST), and Ivan Head (head of Prime Minister`s Office) had set its putrid roots firmly into Canadian soil officially when the Canadian Branch was established informally in 1970 [39].

This nest was directly responsible for the creation of Environment Canada, which had applied systems analysis in order to transform what was once a policy of water and energy development, centred on a national mission, towards “ecosystems management”. A strict dualism between civilized humanity characterized by change and the “unchanging pure equilibrium” of nature was assumed as law, and with this assumption, a new green religion arose masking its fascist intentions behind a “new Canadian nationalism” centred not around a love of freedom or development, but around a fear of both American and Russian aggressors and unfortunate admiration for Britain. 

How the Present Comes from the Future: The Free Choice of the Will is a Matter of Mind 

The lies of the past are looking pretty ugly. Shall we find the strength within ourselves as Canadians to look upon this disfigured ugliness which we are told is our heritage, in order to recapture the vision of Canada’s sovereign potential as a great pioneering nation which held the imaginations of men such as Wilfrid Laurier, O.D. Skelton, C.D. Howe and John Diefenbaker? Shall we pick up upon the organic creative evolution that was so scarred and disfigured when Franklin Roosevelt died, and build such long overdue projects as the North American Water and Power Alliance, championed by the Kennedy brothers in the 1960s and Lyndon LaRouche today? Shall we rebuild our destroyed infrastructure along upgraded magnetic levitation train technology powered by advanced fourth generation nuclear thorium reactors and begin to taste the breakthrough of fusion? Shall we let go of the false genocidal notion of unchanging ecosystems and allow ourselves to see human beings as a species above and beyond everything else known in the biosphere, in that we are unique in our power to comprehend, and wilfully transform those processes of nature in a way that improves and speeds up their evolutionary progress towards ever higher states of energy-flux density?

That really depends on you.

Tune in next week for the Origins of the Deep State part three: What is the Fabian Society and to What End was it Created?

Notes 

(1) Milner to J.S. Sanders, 2 Jan. 1909 cited in “The Round Table Movement and Imperial Union” by John Kendle, University of Toronto Press, 1975, p.55

“(2) CANDU stands for CANadian Deuterium Uranium reactors which use heavy water (in which each atom of oxygen is combined with two atoms of the heavy isotope of hydrogen, deuterium) to slow the fast moving neutrons enough for appreciable absorption and splitting of the nuclei of unstable (“fissile”) isotopes such as uranium-235, without the need to enrich the uranium-235 above its low natural abundance of 0.7 % relative to the non-fissile uranium-238. The absorption of neutrons by the nuclei of relatively stable “non-fissile” isotopes, such as the much more abundant isotopes uranium-238, or thorium-232, transmutes these heavy elements into the chemically distinct but fissile isotopes, plutonium-239 and uranium-233, which vastly expand the potential of nuclear power for mankind.

(3) Canadian scientists such as C.J. Mackenzie and E.W.R. Steacy were integral in shaping the Colombo Plan which served as a conduit in its early days for technology transfers to underdeveloped countries. After America, Canada was the 2nd country in the world to have civilian nuclear power in the form of its NRX research reactor. In the context of President Dwight Eisenhower’s 1953 “Atoms for Peace” program, Canada provided large scale transfers of its nuclear technology to developing countries., first to India, with a contract signed in April 1956 with the CIRUS research centre (constructed in 1960), and then soon after to Pakistan with the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant design supplied by G.E. Canada in 1966. Canada helped India construct two other reactors named RAPP-1 and RAPP-2, but contracts were soon ended for decades due to the creation of nuclear weapons by both countries as an effect of British-manipulated conflict. By the late 1960s, the emphasis on development was shifted from technology sharing and real nation building, towards external monetary aid, and “appropriate technologies” that wouldn’t change the supposed “fixed cultural patterns” of indigenous peoples.  In Canada this imperial re-orientation was overseen by Sir Maurice Strong who was assigned to create the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) in 1968 for this purpose.

(4) St. Laurent and Howe attempted to keep Canada’s dynamic of growth and close relations with the United States as strong as possible throughout their time in office until they were overthrown in a CIIA-run coup of the Liberal Party. St. Laurent shared the Laurier Liberals’ mistrust of the Rhodes Trust networks from an early point in his career, having been one of the first Québécois’ to be offered the Rhodes scholarship in 1907, and rejected “the honour” favouring a Quebec-based education instead.

(5) L. Wolfe, The Beastmen Behind the Dropping of the Bomb, 21st Century Science and Technology, 2005

(6) Massey Report quote cited in Karen Finlay’s “The Force of Culture: Vincent Massey and Canadian Sovereignty”, University of Toronto Press, 2004, p. 218

(7) Trudeau had just returned to Canada from a 500 day long world tour instigated by Harold Laski, a recruiter of young talent and law professor at the London School of Economics who had mentored young Trudeau from 1947-49. Laski was also a leader of the Fabian Society at this time serving as the Head of the National Executive of the British Labour Party.

(8) Maritain and Mounier were part of the “Catholic” variety of the discrete collaborators with Vichy during WWII, after the integrist Pope, Pius XII, had signed a Concordat deal with Hitler. Maritain was an Ultramontane integrist type of fascist who revived Thomas Aquinas with the purpose of instituting a “New Middle Ages” with the collaboration of the Dominicans. Maritain and Mounier were the leaders of the very Catholic “Ordre Nouveau” under Vichy. (See Pierre Beaudry’s Synarchy report on the DOMINICAN FASCIST YOUTH MOVEMENT in Book II: The Modern Synarchy Movement of Empire www.amatterofmind.org/Pierres_PDFs/SYNARCHY_I/BOOK_II/2._SYNARCHY_MOVEMENT_OF_EMPIRE_BOOK_II.pdf .) Maritain was the most important French philosopher of the war years in France and later in America. The entire Maritain, Mounier, and Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange salon at Meudon was anti- De Gaulle, during and after the war. They were “Catholic personalist communitarians” who oriented against individualism and materialism for the benefit of the Revolution Nationale of Petain.

(9) The March, 1946 issue of Eugenical News featured an article called “The Present Status of Sterilization Legislation in the United States” which demonstrates the eugenicists’ anger with the Quebec Church: “The opposition of the Roman Catholic leaders constitutes the greatest obstacle that is encountered in applying, or in acquiring this therapeutic protection. From Maine come complaints that the Catholics of Quebec are moving southward and obstructing the proper use of their sterilization law. From Arizona we hear that no use has been made of their law ‘because of religious objections.’ Three States, Arizona, Arkansas, Nevada, have no institution for the feebleminded or epileptics, though some are cared for in the mental hospitals. Connecticut’s population has a greater proportion of Catholics than any other State having a sterilization law. This accounts in part for the fact that only an occasional operation is being done there.”

(10) Both Trudeau and Lévesque had prominent roles in the 1960-1966 operation with Trudeau working in the Institute for Research into Public Law under Rhodes Scholar Jean Beetz at Father Lévesque`s Université Laval and René Lévesque working as a Cabinet Minister of the Liberal government of Jean Lesage. For more on René Lévesque`s recruitment to British intelligence during WWII, see The Canadian Patriot #5, Feb. 2013.

(11) Julian Huxley: UNESCO Its Purpose and Its Philosophy, 1946, p.13

(12) Huxley, Ibid., p.21

(13) During the War, Britain had centralized its cultural control via the creation of the Council for the Encouragement of Music and Arts (CEMA) founded and led by the Director of Britain’s National Art Gallery, Sir Kenneth Clark. Upon receiving his assignment after serving as fine arts curator at Oxford’s satanic Ashmolean Museum, Clark was made Knight Commander of the Bath in 1938, one of the highest honours bestowed upon high ranking prostitutes of the oligarchy. After the war, CEMA became the Arts Council of Britain, chaired by John Maynard Keynes, a director of the British Eugenics Society until his death. Keynes is on record mere months before his death, exclaiming at a Galton Lecture in 1946 that eugenics is “the most important, significant and, I would add, genuine branch of sociology which exists” [“Opening remarks: The Galton Lecture”. Eugenics Review vol 38 (1): 39–40.] These networks drove the counter-culture operation known as “The Congress for Cultural Freedom’ (CCF)-sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation, the CIA and directed by British Intelligence beginning in 1949. For more on the CCF, see The Congress for Cultural Freedom: Making the World Safe for Post-War Kulturkampf, by Jeff Steinberg and Steve Meyer, published in the June 24, 2004 issue of Executive Intelligence Review, downloadable on www.larouchepub.com

(14) In laying out the strategy for his life’s work with the Club of Rome, King wrote in the forward to his 1991 book The First Global Revolution; “The common enemy of humanity is man. In searching for a new enemy to unite us, we came up with the idea that pollution, the threat of global warming, water shortages, famine and the like would fit the bill. All these dangers are caused by human intervention, and it is only through changed attitudes and behavior that they can be overcome. The real enemy then, is humanity itself.

(15) Zoe Druick, International Cultural Relations as a Factor in Postwar Canadian Cultural Policy: The Relevance of UNESCO for the Massey Commission, published by Simon Fraser University

(16) Karen Finlay, “The Force of Culture: Vincent Massey and Canadian Sovereignty“, University of Toronto Press, 2004

(17) Anna Upchurch, Vincent Massey: Linking Cultural Policy from Great Britain to Canada, International Journal of Cultural Policy, Feb. 15, 2008

(18) This came to be known as the Order of Canada, instituted in 1967, and quickly followed by a succession of other Canadian honours in the years following. It is vital to understand that the origin of the honours’ authority is derived directly from the British Monarchy, which is legally acknowledged as being the “Fount of All Honours”. This is the fundamental source from which all efficient authority springs up within both the public and shadow governing functions of the British Imperial system.

(19) Preliminary Report Royal Commission on Canada’s Economic Prospects, Toronto: Cockfield, Brown p. 83

(20) Stephen Azzi, Foreign Investment and the Paradox of Economic Nationalism, published in Canadas of the Mind: The Making and Unmaking of Canadian Nationalism in the 20th Century, McGill-Queens University Press, 2007

(21) While Finance Minister Gordon’s measures to impose foreign takeover taxes of 30%, and incentives for Canadian ownership of the economy in order to cut off American capital flows into Canada, the devastating effects to the economy could not be ignored and they were soon disbanded. Many of Gordon’s propositions such as the Canadian Development Corporation to pool capital and buy back Canada would only go into effect during the Trudeau administration 10 years later.

(22) One of those who suffered the purge was C.D. Howe-ally Henry Erskine Kidd, General Secretary for the Liberal Party who refered to the process led by Gordon as “a palace revolution”, as referenced in Stephen Azzi, Walter Gordon and Rise of Canadian Nationalism, McGill-Queens University Press, 1999, pg. 71

(23) “I have a feeling that people would like to follow your star in droves – if and when you decide the time is right to give them the nod.” Cited in Walter Gordon and the Rise of Canadian Nationalism by Stephen Azzi, p.70

(24) Glassco Commission Royal Commission Report on Government Organization, Queen’s Printer, Ottawa Canada, 1962, vol. 3, part 1, p.22

(25) Ibid. p. 22

(26) Ibid., p.33

(27) Ibid., p.33

(28) During a confrontation with the Lamontagne Senate Committee, Secretary of the Treasury Board Simon Reisman described the problem of PPB thus: “PPB may, for all I know, have considerable merit when applied to business operations… the PPB system, however, in more complex situations such as science, breaks down by reason of the general error of its assumption that the outcome of experiments is predictable.” [Excerpted from F.Roland Hayes’ Chaining of Prometheus: The Evolution of a Power Structure for Canadian Science, University of Toronto Press, 1973, p.19]

(29) Robert Chodos, Let Us Prey, Jarmes Lorimer and Company publishing, 1974, p.26

(30) Lamontagne, a disciple both of Father Levesque at Laval University and Joseph Schumpeter at Harvard, collaborated with Walter Gordon as a member of the 1955 Royal Commission on Economic Prospects for Canada before going on to become personal secretary to Lester Pearson in 1958. Previous to his chairmanship of the Senate Committee, Lamontagne was President of the Privy Council Office (1964-65), before being made Senator by Lester B. Pearson.

(31) Maurice Lamontagne, Report of the Senate Special Committee on Science Policy, vol. 1, p.22

(32) Lyndon LaRouche, On the Subject of Oligarchy, Executive Intelligence Review, July 26, 2013

(33) ibid.

(34) Report of the Special Senate Committee on Science Policy, vol. 2, p.33-34

(35) Maurice Lamontagne, Report of the Senate Special Committee on Science Policy, vol. 1, p.240

(36) Lamontagne, 29 March 1969, Senate Debates, cited in F. Roland Hayes’ The Chaining of Prometheus, pg.186

(37) Matthew Ehret-Kump, Diefenbaker and the Sabotage of the Northern Vision, The Canadian Patriot #4, Jan 2013

(38) Former Governor General Roland Michener, himself a Rhodes Scholar, also received the Royal Victorian chain by Queen Elizabeth II for services rendered to the British Empire. This honour is the highest given out by the Monarchy, of which only 14 have ever been distributed, and only two in Canada`s history. The other chain was given to Vincent Massey.

(39) The official formation of the Canadian Club of Rome took place only in 1974. Although Trudeau was an enthusiastic participant at Club of Rome meetings, even sponsoring the 1971 Conference in Montebello, Quebec which gave birth to the work “Limits to Growth” the following year, he did not become an officially registered member until out of office. Trudeau remained close friends with Alexander King, and according to former U.S. Ambassador Thomas Enders, Trudeau referred “frequently to Club of Rome thinking on the need for new political and moral approaches”. Trudeau’s renown as a Club of Rome representative was so great that after Aurelio Peccei’s death in 1984, Rhodes Scholar J. Gordon King revealed that Trudeau was even asked to become Peccei’s replacement… a post which he turned down due to political reasons at that time. [see The Limits to Influence: The Club of Rome and Canada 1968-1988 by Jason Churchill, Waterloo, Ontario, 2006, p.138.]

Appendix 1

Cecil Rhodes Calls for the Recapturing of America

In 1877, while laying out his agenda for the formation of a secret society to recapture Britain’s lost colony of America and the submission of “inferior” races (ie. non anglo-saxon) under the control of a renewed British Empire, Cecil Rhodes, wrote his Confessions of Faith in which the following explicit mission statement can be read:

“I contend that we are the finest race in the world and that the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race. Just fancy those parts that are at present inhabited by the most despicable specimens of human beings what an alteration there would be if they were brought under Anglo-Saxon influence, look again at the extra employment a new country added to our dominions gives. I contend that every acre added to our territory means in the future birth to some more of the English race who otherwise would not be brought into existence… I look into history and I read the story of the Jesuits I see what they were able to do in a bad cause and I might say under bad leaders.

Why should we not form a secret society with but one object the furtherance of the British Empire and the bringing of the whole uncivilised world under British rule for the recovery of the United States for the making the Anglo-Saxon race but one Empire…

We know the size of the world we know the total extent. Africa is still lying ready for us it is our duty to take it. It is our duty to seize every opportunity of acquiring more territory and we should keep this one idea steadily before our eyes that more territory simply means more of the Anglo-Saxon race more of the best the most human, most honourable race the world possesses. To forward such a scheme what a splendid help a secret society would be a society not openly acknowledged but who would work in secret for such an object.”

Rhodes’ agenda had manifested itself upon his death in 1902 with the creation of the Rhodes Scholarship Trust whose trustees included Lord Rothschild, and Lord Alfred Milner. The Canadian imperialist George Parkin had even left his post as headmaster of Upper Canada College in Toronto, in order to serve as the 1st head of the Scholarship Trust from 1902-1922. Both Parkin and Milner went on to mentor a young Vincent Massey.

Reprinted from The Duran.


Gravitational Waves, Nuclear Fire, Rocks, and Love

The old trope that ‘we are starstuff’ has ingrained itself in our minds to such an degree that it tends to lose some of its poetry. Yes, components heavier than hydrogen and helium in our earthly environment were created as part of the differed life-cycles of long-gone generations of stars. Many of these cosmic heating systems expunged their guts into the void, contaminating our galaxy with traces of the atomic nuclei we call oxygen, carbon, iron and more. And over the eons gravity has caused the re-condensation of this interstellar matter. As a result the aspects have actually been segregated, permitting the starstuff to become extraordinarily focused – making brand-new stars, planets, and the clusters of heavy nuclei that make up human beings and their ludicrous complexity.

It is truly fantastic, but repeat this tale enough times and it begins to noise a little ordinary. Part of the factor is that the narrative can end up being unclear – from talking in broad terms about earlier generations of now hidden stars, to our loose descriptions of the nature of interstellar matter. It’s a bit like when an aged relative tells you about your extended family tree. There can be little to recognize with, even however you really want to make the connection.

The story gets a lot more fascinating when you look closer though. For one thing, not all aspects are produced in the same method. Possibly the most intriguing example is that of the so-called ‘r-process’ aspects. These have nuclei much heavier than iron and are developed by a mechanism called rapid neutron-capture. As the name suggests, you requirement something to capture the neutrons, in the form of ‘seed’ nuclei, and you need a fearsome flux of neutrons – enough coming in quick sufficient to construct up nuclei beyond any extremely unsteady intermediate setups.

But where do such environments exist?

In 2017 the gravitational wave observatories LIGO and Virgo made headlines by finding the telltale signature of a binary neutron-star merger. Two stellar-mass balls of nuclear material spiralling together with an escalating scream of spacetime oscillations.

Unlike binary black hole mergers this event churned out a prodigious quantity of electro-magnetic radiation in what’s called a kilonova (literally a thousand times the output of an common outstanding nova). Telescopic study of the kilonova produced engaging assistance for a picture where merging neutron stars are an r-process paradise. This suggests that these catastrophic events play a major role in providing some of the heaviest components to our galactic landscape. From gold, platinum, and iridium, to thorium, uranium, and brief components like plutonium.

Now, a brand-new piece of research by Bartos and Marka, published this week in Nature, supplies an ingenious and somewhat shocking insight to the origins of r-process components in our own solar system. To achieve this they combine two key analyses. One is data from meteorites that maintain evidence of the elemental mix in our forming solar system some 4.6 billion years back. The other is a creative analytical model of the Galaxy’s history of neutron star mergers.

What the research points to is a very close by neutron star crash that took place at the dawn of our regional cosmic history. Traces of this one event seem to be present in the information of radioisotopes coming from the r-process that got sprayed into our forming system after the neutron stars collided.

Reaching this conclusion requires some nimble thinking and difficult foot-work. Neutron star-on-neutron star mergers are cosmically rare in the Milky Way, with in between one and a hundred occurring per million years across its entire expanse. Particular r-process aspects, like the actinides (including Curium-247, Plutonium-244, and Iodine-129), not just have relatively short half-lives, measured in the 10s of millions of years, however have left distinct signatures in ancient solar system meteoritic material that enable us to measure their original abundances. So, the amount of these aspects that existed during the window of time that our solar system was forming uses a lever arm on not just how recently those elements had actually been forged, however also how close-by the forge need to have been. 

By building a simulation of neutron star mergers throughout our galaxy, and throughout its history leading up to our solar system’s development (about 9 billion years into the Milky Method’s existence), Bartos and Marka are able to analyze what scenarios might have produced the actinide mix presumed from meteoritic analyses.

The result is that it appears that there was a single kilonova from a neutron star merger that happened within 80 plus-or-minus 40 million years of the development of the solar system and was about 1,000 light years away. The scientists price quote that such a close-by kilonova occasion would outshine whatever in the night sky for over a day. 4 and a half billion years ago, as the merger’s newly made aspects exploded outwards and diffused across interstellar area, a total of about 1020 kilograms wound up being transferred into our young system.

From there you can work out how much of the Earth’s repository of r-process components came from that one occasion. For example, about one eyelash’s worth of the iodine in your body will have come from those neutron stars. A T esla Model 3 contains a total of about 5 grams of the nuclei generated by this specific neutron star merger. A modern fission reactor, making use of enriched uranium, will have about 200 kilograms of material that was produced in this singular cosmic surge.

Critically, this study also appears to rule out events such as core-collapse supernova – where huge stars implode – as the primary producers of r-process aspects throughout the Galaxy. Those occasions, which occur hundreds or even thousands of times more often than neutron star mergers, simply don’t seem to fit the evidence.

Taken entirely it looks like we can upgrade the tale of our origins in ‘starstuff’. Not only are we indebted to even more esoteric and extreme physics than we maybe pictured, we now have 2 really specific members of our ancestral tribe to put on the family tree, a set of neutron- star-crossed enthusiasts whose welcome literally ended in fire.

[Full disclosure: I am acknowledged in the paper by Bartos and Marka, and they are both associates. However my contribution to their work was completely in the kind of making motivating noises.] 
 


.

Gravitational Waves, Nuclear Fire, Rocks, and Love

The old trope that ‘we are starstuff’ has ingrained itself in our minds to such an extent that it tends to lose some of its poetry. Yes, aspects much heavier than hydrogen and helium in our earthly environment were forged as part of the varied life-cycles of long-gone generations of stars. Lots of of these cosmic furnaces expunged their guts into the void, polluting our galaxy with traces of the atomic nuclei we call oxygen, carbon, iron and more. And over the eons gravity has triggered the re-condensation of this interstellar matter. As a result the aspects have actually been segregated, permitting the starstuff to become extraordinarily concentrated – making new stars, planets, and the clusters of heavy nuclei that constitute human beings and their outrageous complexity.

It is genuinely great, but repeat this tale enough times and it begins to sound a little ordinary. Part of the factor is that the narrative can become vague – from talking in broad terms about earlier generations of now unseen stars, to our loose descriptions of the nature of interstellar matter. It’s a bit like when an aged relative tells you about your extended household tree. There can be little to identify with, even though you actually want to make the connection.

The story gets a lot more interesting when you appearance closer though. For one thing, not all components are produced in the exact same method. Maybe the most appealing example is that of the so-called ‘r-process’ elements. These have nuclei much heavier than iron and are built by a system called rapid neutron-capture. As the name indicates, you requirement something to capture the neutrons, in the type of ‘seed’ nuclei, and you need a terrifying flux of neutrons – enough coming in quick enough to develop up nuclei beyond any extremely unsteady intermediate configurations.

But where do such environments exist?

In 2017 the gravitational wave observatories LIGO and Virgo made headings by identifying the telltale signature of a binary neutron-star merger. Two stellar-mass balls of nuclear product spiralling together with an intensifying shriek of spacetime oscillations.

Unlike binary black hole mergers this occasion churned out a prodigious quantity of electro-magnetic radiation in what’s termed a kilonova (literally a thousand times the output of an normal outstanding nova). Telescopic study of the kilonova produced engaging support for a photo where combining neutron stars are an r-process heaven. This suggests that these catastrophic occasions play a significant function in providing some of the heaviest elements to our galactic landscape. From gold, platinum, and iridium, to thorium, uranium, and short-term elements like plutonium.

Now, a new piece of research by Bartos and Marka, published this week in Nature, provides an ingenious and rather surprising insight to the origins of r-process elements in our own solar system. To achieve this they integrate 2 secret analyses. One is data from meteorites that protect evidence of the elemental mix in our forming solar system some 4.6 billion years back. The other is a clever analytical model of the Galaxy’s history of neutron star mergers.

What the research points to is a really close by neutron star crash that took location at the dawn of our regional cosmic history. Traces of this one occasion appear to be present in the details of radioisotopes coming from the r-process that got sprayed into our forming system after the neutron stars clashed.

Reaching this conclusion needs some nimble thinking and challenging foot-work. Neutron star-on-neutron star mergers are cosmically unusual in the Milky Method, with between one and a hundred occurring per million years throughout its entire expanse. Certain r-process components, like the actinides (including Curium-247, Plutonium-244, and Iodine-129), not just have fairly short half-lives, determined in the 10s of millions of years, however have left distinct signatures in ancient solar system meteoritic product that enable us to measure their initial abundances. So, the amount of these aspects that existed during the window of time that our solar system was forming provides a lever arm on not just how just recently those elements had been created, however also how neighboring the forge need to have actually been. 

By building a simulation of neutron star mergers across our galaxy, and throughout its history leading up to our solar system’s development (about 9 billion years into the Milky Method’s existence), Bartos and Marka are able to examine what scenarios could have produced the actinide mix presumed from meteoritic analyses.

The outcome is that it appears that there was a single kilonova from a neutron star merger that took place within 80 plus-or-minus 40 million years of the development of the solar system and was about 1,000 light years away. The researchers price quote that such a nearby kilonova occasion would outperform whatever in the night sky for over a day. 4 and a half billion years ago, as the merger’s newly made elements exploded outwards and diffused across interstellar area, a overall of about 1020 kgs injury up being deposited into our young system.

From there you can work out how much of the Earth’s repository of r-process aspects came from that one event. For example, about one eyelash’s worth of the iodine in your body will have come from those neutron stars. A T esla Model 3 consists of a overall of about 5 grams of the nuclei produced by this specific neutron star merger. A modern-day fission reactor, utilizing enriched uranium, will have about 200 kgs of product that was produced in this particular cosmic surge.

Critically, this study likewise seems to rule out occasions such as core-collapse supernova – where massive stars implode – as the primary producers of r-process elements across the Galaxy. Those occasions, which take place hundreds or even thousands of times more regularly than neutron star mergers, simply put on’t seem to fit the proof.

Taken entirely it looks like we can upgrade the tale of our origins in ‘starstuff’. Not just are we indebted to even more esoteric and extreme physics than we perhaps imagined, we now have 2 very specific members of our ancestral tribe to put on the family tree, a set of neutron- star-crossed fans whose embrace literally ended in fire.

[Full disclosure: I am acknowledged in the paper by Bartos and Marka, and they are both colleagues. However my contribution to their work was totally in the type of making motivating sounds.] 
 


.

Gravitational Waves, Nuclear Fire, Rocks and Love

The old trope that ‘we are starstuff’ has embedded itself in our minds to such an level that it tends to lose some of its poetry. Yes, elements much heavier than hydrogen and helium in our earthly environment were forged as part of the differed life-cycles of long-gone generations of stars. Many of these cosmic heating systems expunged their guts into the void, contaminating our galaxy with traces of the atomic nuclei we call oxygen, carbon, iron and more. And over the eons gravity has triggered the re-condensation of this interstellar matter. As a result the elements have been segregated, enabling the starstuff to ended up being extraordinarily concentrated – making new stars, planets, and the clusters of heavy nuclei that make up human beings and their absurd complexity.

It is truly fantastic, however repeat this tale adequate times and it begins to sound a little ordinary. Part of the factor is that the narrative can become unclear – from talking in broad terms about earlier generations of now unseen stars, to our loose descriptions of the nature of interstellar matter. It’s a bit like when an aged relative informs you about your extended household tree. There can be little to determine with, even though you truly desire to make the connection.

The story gets a lot more interesting when you look closer however. For one thing, not all aspects are produced in the very same method. Possibly the most intriguing example is that of the so-called ‘r-process’ elements. These have nuclei heavier than iron and are developed by a system called rapid neutron-capture. As the name indicates, you requirement something to capture the neutrons, in the form of ‘seed’ nuclei, and you need a fearsome flux of neutrons – enough coming in quick adequate to construct up nuclei beyond any highly unstable intermediate setups.

But where do such environments exist?

In 2017 the gravitational wave observatories LIGO and Virgo made headings by identifying the tell-tale signature of a binary neutron-star merger. 2 stellar-mass balls of nuclear product spiralling together with an escalating squeal of spacetime oscillations.

Unlike binary black hole mergers this occasion churned out a prodigious amount of electromagnetic radiation in what’s termed a kilonova (literally a thousand times the output of an regular stellar nova). Telescopic study of the kilonova produced engaging support for a picture where merging neutron stars are an r-process paradise. This recommends that these cataclysmic events play a significant role in supplying some of the heaviest elements to our galactic landscape. From gold, platinum, and iridium, to thorium, uranium, and brief elements like plutonium.

Now, a new piece of research study by Bartos and Marka, published this week in Nature, supplies an ingenious and somewhat surprising insight to the origins of r-process aspects in our own solar system. To accomplish this they integrate two secret analyses. One is data from meteorites that maintain evidence of the elemental mix in our forming solar system some 4.6 billion years earlier. The other is a creative statistical design of the Galaxy’s history of neutron star mergers.

What the research points to is a very nearby neutron star crash that took location at the dawn of our local cosmic history. Traces of this one event seem to be present in the details of radioisotopes coming from the r-process that got sprayed into our forming system after the neutron stars clashed.

Reaching this conclusion requires some nimble thinking and tricky foot-work. Neutron star-on-neutron star mergers are cosmically rare in the Milky Method, with in between one and a hundred occurring per million years throughout its whole expanse. Specific r-process elements, like the actinides (including Curium-247, Plutonium-244, and Iodine-129), not only have fairly short half-lives, determined in the tens of millions of years, but have left unique signatures in ancient solar system meteoritic material that enable us to step their original abundances. So, the amount of these components that existed throughout the window of time that our solar system was forming uses a lever arm on not only how just recently those aspects had been created, but likewise how nearby the create should have been. 

By constructing a simulation of neutron star mergers across our galaxy, and throughout its history leading up to our solar system’s development (about 9 billion years into the Milky Way’s existence), Bartos and Marka are able to examine what circumstances might have actually produced the actinide mix presumed from meteoritic analyses.

The upshot is that it appears that there was a single kilonova from a neutron star merger that happened within 80 plus-or-minus 40 million years of the development of the solar system and was about 1,000 light years away. The scientists quote that such a neighboring kilonova event would beat whatever in the night sky for over a day. 4 and a half billion years ago, as the merger’s newly made components blew up outwards and diffused throughout interstellar space, a overall of about 1020 kilograms injury up being transferred into our young system.

From there you can work out how much of the Earth’s repository of r-process aspects came from that one occasion. For example, about one eyelash’s worth of the iodine in your body will have come from those neutron stars. A T esla Design 3 contains a overall of about 5 grams of the nuclei created by this specific neutron star merger. A modern-day fission reactor, making use of enriched uranium, will have about 200 kilograms of material that was produced in this particular cosmic surge.

Critically, this study likewise appears to guideline out occasions such as core-collapse supernova – where huge stars implode – as the main manufacturers of r-process aspects across the Galaxy. Those occasions, which occur hundreds or even thousands of times more often than neutron star mergers, just don’t appear to fit the evidence.

Taken altogether it looks like we can update the tale of our origins in ‘starstuff’. Not just are we indebted to even more esoteric and extreme physics than we possibly imagined, we now have 2 extremely specific members of our ancestral people to put on the family tree, a set of neutron- star-crossed enthusiasts whose accept literally ended in fire.

[Full disclosure: I am acknowledged in the paper by Bartos and Marka, and they are both coworkers. But my contribution to their work was completely in the kind of making motivating sounds.] 
 


.

Gravitational Waves, Nuclear Fire, Rocks and Love

The old trope that ‘we are starstuff’ has embedded itself in our minds to such an degree that it tends to lose some of its poetry. Yes, elements heavier than hydrogen and helium in our earthly environment were created as part of the varied life-cycles of long-gone generations of stars. Numerous of these cosmic heaters expunged their guts into the void, polluting our galaxy with traces of the atomic nuclei we call oxygen, carbon, iron and more. And over the eons gravity has caused the re-condensation of this interstellar matter. As a result the components have actually been segregated, allowing the starstuff to become extremely focused – making brand-new stars, planets, and the clusters of heavy nuclei that constitute human beings and their ridiculous complexity.

It is truly great, but repeat this tale adequate times and it starts to noise a little normal. Part of the reason is that the narrative can end up being unclear – from talking in broad terms about earlier generations of now hidden stars, to our loose descriptions of the nature of interstellar matter. It’s a bit like when an aged relative tells you about your extended family tree. There can be little to determine with, even however you actually want to make the connection.

The story gets a lot more intriguing when you appearance closer however. For one thing, not all elements are produced in the exact same way. Maybe the most intriguing example is that of the so-called ‘r-process’ elements. These have nuclei much heavier than iron and are developed by a system called rapid neutron-capture. As the name indicates, you requirement something to capture the neutrons, in the kind of ‘seed’ nuclei, and you requirement a fearsome flux of neutrons – enough coming in quick enough to build up nuclei beyond any extremely unstable intermediate setups.

But where do such environments exist?

In 2017 the gravitational wave observatories LIGO and Virgo made headings by finding the tell-tale signature of a binary neutron-star merger. 2 stellar-mass balls of nuclear material spiralling together with an escalating scream of spacetime oscillations.

Unlike binary black hole mergers this event churned out a prodigious quantity of electro-magnetic radiation in what’s described a kilonova (literally a thousand times the output of an normal excellent nova). Telescopic research study of the kilonova produced engaging assistance for a picture where merging neutron stars are an r-process heaven. This suggests that these cataclysmic events play a major function in providing some of the heaviest components to our galactic landscape. From gold, platinum, and iridium, to thorium, uranium, and brief aspects like plutonium.

Now, a brand-new piece of research study by Bartos and Marka, published this week in Nature, provides an ingenious and rather stunning insight to the origins of r-process aspects in our own solar system. To achieve this they combine 2 key analyses. One is information from meteorites that maintain proof of the essential mix in our forming solar system some 4.6 billion years earlier. The other is a creative statistical design of the Galaxy’s history of neutron star mergers.

What the research points to is a very nearby neutron star accident that took place at the dawn of our regional cosmic history. Traces of this one event appear to be present in the details of radioisotopes coming from the r-process that got sprayed into our forming system after the neutron stars collided.

Reaching this conclusion needs some active thinking and difficult foot-work. Neutron star-on-neutron star mergers are cosmically uncommon in the Milky Way, with in between one and a hundred taking place per million years throughout its whole expanse. Certain r-process elements, like the actinides (including Curium-247, Plutonium-244, and Iodine-129), not just have fairly short half-lives, measured in the tens of millions of years, but have left distinct signatures in ancient solar system meteoritic material that allow us to procedure their initial abundances. So, the quantity of these aspects that existed throughout the window of time that our solar system was forming offers a lever arm on not only how just recently those aspects had actually been created, however likewise how close-by the create must have been. 

By constructing a simulation of neutron star mergers throughout our galaxy, and throughout its history leading up to our solar system’s development (about 9 billion years into the Milky Way’s presence), Bartos and Marka are able to take a look at what situations could have actually produced the actinide mix presumed from meteoritic analyses.

The result is that it appears that there was a single kilonova from a neutron star merger that took place within 80 plus-or-minus 40 million years of the development of the solar system and was about 1,000 light years away. The researchers price quote that such a nearby kilonova occasion would outperform everything in the night sky for over a day. Four and a half billion years ago, as the merger’s freshly made components took off outwards and diffused throughout interstellar area, a total of about 1020 kgs wound up being deposited into our young system.

From there you can work out how much of the Earth’s repository of r-process elements came from that one occasion. For example, about one eyelash’s worth of the iodine in your body will have come from those neutron stars. A T esla Design 3 consists of a total of about 5 grams of the nuclei created by this specific neutron star merger. A modern-day fission reactor, using enriched uranium, will have about 200 kgs of product that was produced in this singular cosmic explosion.

Critically, this study also appears to rule out events such as core-collapse supernova – where massive stars implode – as the primary manufacturers of r-process components across the Galaxy. Those events, which take place hundreds or even thousands of times more often than neutron star mergers, just wear’t appear to fit the evidence.

Taken completely it looks like we can update the tale of our origins in ‘starstuff’. Not just are we indebted to even more mystical and severe physics than we perhaps pictured, we now have 2 very particular members of our ancestral people to put on the household tree, a pair of neutron- star-crossed lovers whose accept literally ended in fire.

[Full disclosure: I am acknowledged in the paper by Bartos and Marka, and they are both colleagues. However my contribution to their work was entirely in the type of making motivating sounds.] 
 


.

Powering the future – with no compromises

A molten salt reactor (MSR) is a class of nuclear fission reactor in which the primary nuclear reactor coolant and/or the fuel is a molten salt mixture. MSRs offer multiple advantages over conventional nuclear power plants, although for historical reasons, they have not been deployed.

Watch the video:

(from World-Nuclear Association)

  • Molten salt reactors operated in the 1960s.
  • They are seen as a promising technology today principally as a thorium fuel cycle prospect or for using spent LWR fuel.
  • A variety of designs is being developed, some as fast neutron types.
  • Global research is currently led by China.
  • Some have solid fuel similar to HTR fuel, others have fuel dissolved in the molten salt coolant.

Molten salt reactors (MSRs) use molten fluoride salts as primary coolant, at low pressure. This itself is not a radical departure when the fuel is solid and fixed. But extending the concept to dissolving the fissile and fertile fuel in the salt certainly represents a leap in lateral thinking relative to nearly every reactor operated so far. However, the concept is not new, as outlined below.

MSRs may operate with epithermal or fast neutron spectrums, and with a variety of fuels. Much of the interest today in reviving the MSR concept relates to using thorium (to breed fissile uranium-233), where an initial source of fissile material such as plutonium-239 needs to be provided. There are a number of different MSR design concepts, and a number of interesting challenges in the commercialisation of many, especially with thorium.

The salts concerned as primary coolant, mostly lithium-beryllium fluoride and lithium fluoride, remain liquid without pressurization from about 500°C up to about 1400°C, in marked contrast to a PWR which operates at about 315°C under 150 atmospheres pressure.

The main MSR concept is to have the fuel dissolved in the coolant as fuel salt, and ultimately to reprocess that online. Thorium, uranium, and plutonium all form suitable fluoride salts that readily dissolve in the LiF-BeF2(FLiBe) mixture, and thorium and uranium can be easily separated from one another in fluoride form. Batch reprocessing is likely in the short term, and fuel life is quoted at 4-7 years, with high burn-up. Intermediate designs and the AHTR have fuel particles in solid graphite and have less potential for thorium use.

Graphite as moderator is chemically compatible with the fluoride salts.

Background

During the 1960s, the USA developed the molten salt breeder reactor concept at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee (built as part of the wartime Manhattan Project). It was the primary back-up option for the fast breeder reactor (cooled by liquid metal) and a small prototype 8 MWt Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) operated at Oak Ridge over four years to 1969 (the MSR program ran 1957-1976). In the first campaign (1965-68), uranium-235 tetrafluoride (UF4) enriched to 33% was dissolved in molten lithium, beryllium and zirconium fluorides at 600-700°C which flowed through a graphite moderator at ambient pressure. The fuel comprised about one percent of the fluid.

The coolant salt in a secondary circuit was lithium + beryllium fluoride (FLiBe).* There was no breeding blanket, this being omitted for simplicity in favour of neutron measurements.

* Fuel salt melting point 434°C, coolant salt melting point 455°C. See Wong & Merrill 2004 reference.

The original objectives of the MSRE were achieved by March 1965, and the U-235 campaign concluded. A second campaign (1968-69) used U-233 fuel which was then available, making MSRE the first reactor to use U-233, though it was imported and not bred in the reactor. This program prepared the way for building a MSR breeder utilising thorium, which would operate in the thermal (slow) neutron spectrum.

According to NRC 2007, the culmination of the Oak Ridge research over 1970-76 resulted in a MSR design that would use LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4 (72-16-12-0.4) as fuel. It would be moderated by graphite with a four-year replacement schedule, use NaF-NaBF4 as the secondary coolant, and have a peak operating temperature of 705°C.

The R&D program demonstrated the feasibility of this system, albeit excluding online reprocessing, and highlighted some unique corrosion and safety issues that would need to be addressed if constructing a larger pilot MSR with fuel salt. Challenges would include processing facilities to remove the main fission products, though gaseous fission products come off readily in the gas purge system. It also showed that breeding required a different design, with a larger blanket loop and two fluids (heterogeneous). Tritium production was a problem (see below re lithium enrichment).

In 1980 Oak Ridge published a study to “examine the conceptual feasibility” of a denatured MSR (DMSR) fuelled with low-enriched uranium-235 “and operated with a minimum of chemical processing,” solely as a burner reactor. The main priority was proliferation resistance, avoiding use of HEU.

In the UK a large (2.5 GWe) lead-cooled fast spectrum MSR (MSFR) with the plutonium fuel dissolved in a molten chloride salt was designed, with experimental work undertaken over 1968-73. Funding ceased in 1974.

There is now renewed interest in the MSR concept in Japan, Russia, China, France and the USA, and one of the six Generation IV designs selected for further development is the MSR in two distinct variants, the molten salt fast reactor (MSFR) and the advanced high temperature reactor (AHTR) – also known as the fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR) with solid fuel, or PB-FHR specifically with pebble fuel. The Generation IV international Forum (GIF) mentions ‘salt processing’ as a technology gap for MSRs, putting the initial focus clearly on burners rather than breeders.

Since the 2002 Generation IV selection process, significant changes in design philosophy have taken place, according to a 2015 report by Energy Process Developments Ltd (EPD). The first is to design simpler, less ambitious, molten salt reactors that do not breed new fuel, do not require online fuel reprocessing and which use the well-established enriched uranium fuel cycle. In this regard, both American researchers and the China Academy of Sciences/SINAP are working on solid fuel, salt-cooled reactor technology as a realistic first step into MSRs. In 2014, as part of an assessment of MSR activity internationally, proposals were made for pilot-scale implementation, where technical readiness was claimed. Six such specific proposals* were assessed over 12 months with commissioned expertise from established UK nuclear engineering firms. These proposals were all seen as credible for building a prototype, with one emerging in the EPD report as currently most suitable as a basis for UK MSR development, the Moltex SSR.

* from Flibe Energy, ThorCon, Moltex, Seaborg Technologies, Terrestrial Energy and Transatomic Power.

Function

In the normal or basic MSR concept, the fuel is a molten mixture of lithium and beryllium fluoride (FLiBe) salts with dissolved low-enriched uranium (U-235 or U-233) fluorides (UF4). The core consists of unclad graphite moderator arranged to allow the flow of salt at about 700°C and at low pressure. Much higher temperatures are possible but not yet tested. Heat is transferred to a secondary salt circuit and thence to steam or process heat. The basic design is not a fast neutron reactor, but with some moderation by the graphite is epithermal (intermediate neutron speed) and breeding ratio is less than 1.

However, this concept, with fuel dissolved in the salt, is further from commercialisation than solid fuel designs, where the ceramic fuel may be set in prisms, plates, or pebbles, or one design with liquid fuel in static tubes. Reprocessing that fuel salt online is even further from commercialization.

Considering liquid-fuel MSR designs, thorium can be dissolved with the uranium in a single fluid MSR, known as a homogeneous design. Two-fluid, or heterogeneous MSRs, would have fertile salt containing thorium in a second loop separate from the fuel salt containing fissile uranium or plutonium and could operate as a breeder reactor (MSBR). Here, the U-233 is progressively removed* and transferred to the primary circuit. However, graphite degradation from neutron flux limits the useful life of the reactor core with the fuel and breeding fluids in close juxtaposition, and in the 1960s it was assumed that the entire reactor vessel in the two-fluid design would be replaced after about eight years.**

e.g. by bubbling fluorine through the salt so that UF6 is formed and removed as a gas. The UF6 is reduced and added to the fuel stream.

** Graphite is used to slow neutrons in epithermal designs, and deteriorates in a high neutron flux environment. The rate of damage increases with temperature, which is a particular problem with MSRs at 700°C.

In liquid-fuel MSR designs the fission products dissolve in the fuel salt and are ideally removed continuously in an adjacent online reprocessing loop and replaced with fissile uranium, plutonium and other actinides or, potentially, fertile Th-232 or U-238. Meanwhile caesium and iodine in particular remain secure in the molten salt. Xenon is removed rapidly by outgassing, but protactinium-233 is a problem with thorium as a fuel source. (It is an intermediate product in producing U-233 and is a major neutron absorber.) Constant removal of fission products means that a much higher fuel burn-up could be achieved (> 50%) and the removal of fission products means less decay heat to contend with after reactor shutdown. Actinides are fully recycled and remain in the reactor until they fission or are converted to higher actinides which do so. Hence fissile plutonium is largely consumed, and contributes significant energy. The high-level waste would comprise fission products only, hence with shorter-lived radioactivity.

Compared with solid-fuelled reactors, MSR systems with circulating fuel salt are claimed to have lower fissile inventories*, no radiation damage constraint on fuel burn-up, no requirement to fabricate and handle solid fuel or solid used fuel, and a homogeneous isotopic composition of fuel in the reactor. Actinides are less-readily formed from U-233 than in fuel with atomic mass greater than 235. These and other characteristics may enable MSRs to have unique capabilities and competitive economics for actinide burning and extending fuel resources. Safety is high due to passive cooling up to any size. Also, several designs have freeze plugs so that if excessive temperatures are reached, the primary salt will be drained by gravity away from the moderator into dump tanks configured to prevent criticality.

* In particular, a small inventory of weapons-fissile material (Pu-242 being the dominant Pu isotope remaining), and low fuel use (the French self-breeding variant claims 50kg of thorium and 50kg U-238 per billion kWh).

MSRs have large negative temperature and void coefficients of reactivity, and are designed to shut down due to expansion of the fuel salt as temperature increases beyond design limits. The negative temperature and void reactivity coefficients passively reduce the rate of power increase in the case of an inadvertent control rod withdrawal (technically known as a ‘reactivity insertion’). When tests were made on the MSRE, a control rod was intentionally withdrawn during normal reactor operations at full power (8 MWt) to observe the dynamic response of core power. Such was the rate of fuel salt thermal expansion that reactor power levelled off at 9 MWt without any operator intervention.

The MSR thus has a significant load-following capability where reduced heat abstraction through the boiler tubes leads to increased coolant temperature, or greater heat removal reduces coolant temperature and increases reactivity. Primary reactivity control is using the secondary coolant salt pump or circulation which changes the temperature of the fuel salt in the core, thus altering reactivity due to its strong negative reactivity coefficient. The MSR works at near atmospheric pressure, eliminating the risk of explosive release of volatile radioactive materials.

One MSR developer, Moltex, has put forward a molten salt heat storage concept (GridReserve) to enable the reactor to supplement intermittent renewables. Hot nitrate salt at about 600°C is transferred to storage tanks which are able to hold eight hours of reactor output at 2.5 GW thermal (as used in solar CSP plants). The heat store is said to add only £3/MWh to the levelised cost of electricity.

In the MSBR, the reactor-grade U-233 bred in the secondary circuit needs to be removed, or it will fission there and contaminate that circuit with ‘hot’ fission products. Therefore in practice the protactinium (Pa-233) formed from the thorium needs to be removed before it decays to U-233*, but this process is unproven at any scale. It is relatively easy to remove the U-233 from the Pa-233 by fluorination to UF6 before reducing it to UF4 for adding to the primary fuel salt circuit. However, the U-233 is contaminated with up to 400 ppm U-232 which complicates processing, due to its highly gamma-active decay progeny.

* Th-232 gains a neutron to form Th-233, which soon beta decays (half-life 22 minutes) to protactinium-233. The Pa-233 (half-life of 27 days) decays into U-233. Some U-232 is also formed via Pa-232 along with Th-233, and a decay product of this is very gamma active.

MSRs would normally operate at much higher temperatures than LWRs – up to at least 700°C, and hence have potential for process heat. Up to this temperature, satisfactory structural materials are available. ‘Alloy N’ is a nickel-based alloy (Ni-Cr-Mo-Si) developed at ORNL specifically for MSRs with fluoride salts.

Primary and secondary cooling, the fluoride salts

Fluoride salts have very low vapour pressure even at red heat, carry more heat than the same volume of water, have reasonably good heat transfer properties, are not damaged by radiation, do not react violently with air or water, and are inert to some common structural metals. However having the fuel in solution also means that the primary coolant salt becomes radioactive, complicating maintenance procedures, and the chemistry of the salt must be monitored closely to maintain a chemically reduced state to minimise corrosion. Also the beryllium in the salt is toxic, which leads to at least one design avoiding it, though this requires higher temperatures to keep LiF liquid. LiF however can carry a higher concentration of uranium than FLiBe, allowing less enrichment. There are difficulties with plutonium and other TRU fluorides in fluoride solvents.

Lithium used in the salt must be fairly pure Li-7, since Li-6 produces tritium when (readily) fissioned by neutrons. Li-7 has a very small neutron cross-section (0.045 barns). This means that lithium must be enriched beyond its natural 92.5% Li-7 level to minimise tritium production. Lithium-7 is being produced at least in Russia and possibly China today as a by-product of enriching lithium-6 to produce tritium for thermonuclear weapons. See also Lithiumpaper.

LiF is exceptionally stable chemically, and the LiF-BeF2 mix (‘FLiBe’)* is eutectic (at 459°C it has a lower melting point than either ingredient – LiF is about 500°C). It boils at 1430°C. It is favoured in MSR and AHTR primary cooling and when uncontaminated has a low corrosion effect. The three nuclides (Li-7, Be, F) are among the few to have low enough thermal neutron capture cross-sections not to interfere with fission reactions.

* Approx. 2:1 molar, hence sometimes represented as Li2BeF4

LiF without the toxic beryllium solidifies at about 500°C and boils at about 1200°C. FLiNaK (LiF-NaF-KF) is also eutectic and solidifies at 454°C and boils at 1570°C. It has a higher neutron cross-section than FLiBe or LiF but can be used in intermediate cooling loops. Sodium-beryllium fluoride (BeF2-NaF) solidifying at 385°C is used as fuel salt in one design for cost reasons.

The hot molten salt in the primary circuit can be used with secondary salt circuit or secondary helium coolant generating power via the Brayton cycle as with HTR designs, with potential thermal efficiencies of 48% at 750°C to 59% at 1000°C, or simply with steam generators. In industrial applications molten fluoride salts (possibly simply cryolite – Na-Al fluoride) are a preferred interface fluid in a secondary circuit between the nuclear heat source and any chemical plant. The aluminium smelting industry provides substantial experience in managing them safely.

Most secondary coolant salts do not use lithium, for cost reasons. ZrF4-NaF-KF, ZrF4-KF, NaF-BeF2 eutectic mixes are usual, as well as LiF-NaF-KF (FLiNaK).

In the secondary cooling circuit of the AHTR concept, air is compressed, heated, flows through gas turbines producing electricity, enters a steam recovery boiler producing steam that produces additional electricity, and exits to the atmosphere. Added peak power can be produced by injecting natural gas (or hydrogen in the future) after nuclear heating of the compressed air to raise gas temperatures and plant output, giving it rapidly variable output (of great value in grid stability and for peak load demand where renewables have significant input). This is described as an air Brayton combined-cycle (ABCC) system in secondary circuit.

In the 1960s MSRE, an alternative secondary coolant salt considered was 8% NaF + 92% NaF-BeF2 with melting point 385°C, though this would be more corrosive.

Chloride salts, fast spectrum reactors

Chloride salts have some attractive features compared with fluorides, in particular the actinide trichlorides form lower melting point solutions and have higher solubility for actinides so can contain significant amounts of transuranic elements. PuCl3 in NaCl has been well researched. While NaCl has good nuclear, chemical and physical properties, its high melting point means it needs to be blended with MgCl2 or CaCl2, the former being preferred in eutectic, and allowing the addition of actinide trichlorides. The major isotope of chlorine, Cl-35 gives rise to Cl-36 as an activation product – a long-lived energetic beta source, so Cl-37 is much preferable in a reactor.

A British design contains the chloride fuel salt in vertical tubes and relies on convection to circulate the secondary salt coolant, which is a fluoride mix.

Fast spectrum MSRs (MSFRs) can have conversion ratios ranging from burner to converter to breeder. This may be within a single unit as the ratio of U-238 to transuranics (TRU) is varied – less U-238 giving more fission. They can be optimised for burning minor actinides, for breeding plutonium from U-238, or they may be open-cycle power plants without heavy metal separation from fission products. The fast neutron spectrum allows the possibility of not having onsite processing to remove TRUs. While fission products have relatively large neutron capture cross sections in the thermal energy range, the capture cross sections at higher energies is much lower, allowing much greater fission product build-up in an MSFR than in a thermal-spectrum MSR (gaseous fission products separate out of the liquid fuel). Eventually the fuel salt heavily loaded with fission products can be sent occasionally for batch processing or allowed to solidify and be disposed of in a repository. For full breeder configuration the fissile material needs to be progressively removed.
 
MSFRs have a negative void coefficient in the salt and a negative thermal reactivity feedback, so can maintain a high power density with passive safety. Freeze plugs to drain the fuel salt are a further passive safety measure as in other MSRs.

MSR research emphasis

American researchers and the China Academy of Sciences/SINAP are working primarily on solid fuel MSR technology. The main reason is that this is a realistic first step. In China this is focused on thorium-fuelled versions (see TMSR in China’s dual program section below). The technical difficulty of using molten salts is significantly lower when they do not have the very high activity levels associated with them bearing the dissolved fuels and wastes. The experience gained with component design, operation, and maintenance with clean salts makes it much easier then to move on and consider the use of liquid fuels, while gaining several key advantages from the ability to operate reactors at low pressure and deliver higher temperatures.

In the Generation IV program for the MSR, collaborative R&D is pursued by interested members under the auspices of a provisional steering committee. There will be a long lead time to prototypes, and the R&D orientation has changed since the project was set up, due to increased interest. It now has two baseline concepts:

  • The Molten Salt Fast Neutron Reactor (MSFR), which will take in thorium fuel cycle, recycling of actinides, closed Th/U fuel cycle with no U enrichment, with enhanced safety and minimal wastes. it is a liquid-fuel design.
  • The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) – also known as the fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR) – with the same graphite and solid fuel core structures as the VHTR and molten salt as coolant instead of helium, enabling power densities 4 to 6 times greater than HTRs and power levels up to 4000 MWt with passive safety systems. A 5 MWt prototype is under construction at Shanghai Institute of Nuclear Applied Physics (SINAP, under the China Academy of Sciences) with 2015 target for operation.

The GIF 2014 Roadmap said that a lot of work needed to be done on salts before demonstration reactors were operational, and suggested 2025 as the end of the viability R&D phase.

Russia’s Molten Salt Actinide Recycler and Transmuter (MOSART) is a fast reactor fuelled only by transuranic (TRU) fluorides from uranium and MOX LWR used fuel. It is part of the MARS project (minor actinide recycling in molten salt) involving RIAR, Kurchatov and other research organisations. The 2400 MWt design has a homogeneous core of Li-Na-Be or Li-Be fluorides without a graphite moderator and has reduced reprocessing compared with the original US design. Thorium may also be used, though it is described as a burner-converter rather than a breeder.

The SAMOFAR (Safety Assessment of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor) project, based in the Netherlands and funded by the European Commission, aims to prove the safety concepts of the MSFR in breeding mode from thorium. It plans advanced experimental and numerical techniques, to deliver a breakthrough in nuclear safety and optimal waste management, and to create a consortium of stakeholders. “The use of the Th-U fuel cycle is of particular interest to the MSR, because this reactor is the only one in which the Pa-233 can be stored in a hold-up tank to let it decay to U-233.” The SAMOFAR consortium consists of 11 participants and is mainly undertaken by universities and research laboratories such as CNRS, JRC, CIRTEN, TU Delft and PSI, thereby exploiting each other’s expertise and infrastructure. It commenced in 2015.

China’s dual program

China plans for the TMSR-SF to be an energy solution for the northwest half of the country, with lower population density and little water. The application of water-free cooling in arid regions is envisaged from about 2025.

The China Academy of Sciences in January 2011 launched an R&D program on LFTRs, known there as the thorium-breeding molten-salt reactor (Th-MSR or TMSR), and claimed to have the world’s largest national effort on it, hoping to obtain full intellectual property rights on the technology. The TMSR Centre at Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (SINAP, under the Academy) at Jiading is responsible. In the 1970s SINAP worked towards building a 25 MWe MSR, but this endeavor gave way to the Qinshan PWR project.

SINAP has two streams of TMSR development – solid fuel (TRISO in pebbles or prisms/blocks) with once-through fuel cycle, and liquid fuel (dissolved in fluoride coolant) with reprocessing and recycle. A third stream of fast reactors to consume actinides from LWRs is planned. The aim is to develop both the thorium fuel cycle and non-electrical applications in a 20-30 year timeframe.

  • The TMSR-SF stream has only partial utilization of thorium, relying on some breeding as with U-238, and needing fissile uranium input as well. It is optimized for high-temperature based hybrid nuclear energy applications. SINAP aimed at a 2 MW pilot plant initially, though this has been superseded by a simulator (TMSR-SF0) to be followed by a 10 MWt prototype (TMSR-SF1) before 2025. A 100 MWt demonstration pebble bed plant (TMSR-SF2) with open fuel cycle would follow, then a 1 GW demonstration plant (TMSR-SF3). TRISO particles will be with both low-enriched uranium and thorium, separately.
  • The TMSR-LF stream claims full closed Th-U fuel cycle with breeding of U-233 and much better sustainability with thorium but greater technical difficulty. It is optimized for utilization of thorium with electrometallurgical pyroprocessing. SINAP aims for a 2 MWt pilot plant (TMSR-LF1) initially, then a 10 MWt experimental reactor (TMSR-LF2) by 2025, and a 100 MWt demonstration plant (TMSR-LF3) with full electrometallurgical reprocessing by about 2035, followed by 1 a GW demonstration plant. The TMSR-LF timeline is about ten years behind the SF one.
  • TMSFR-LF fast reactor optimized for burning minor actinides is to follow.

SINAP sees molten salt fuel being superior to the TRISO fuel in effectively unlimited burn-up, less waste, and lower fabricating cost, but achieving lower temperatures (600°C+) than the TRISO fuel reactors (1200°C+). Near-term goals include preparing nuclear-grade ThF4 and ThO2 and testing them in a MSR. It appears that the postponement of building the 2 MW test reactor may be due to inadequate supplies of pure lithium-7.

The TMSR-SF program is proceeding with preliminary engineering design in cooperation with the Nuclear Power Institute of China (NPIC) and Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research & Design Institute (SNERDI). Nickel-based alloys are being developed for structures, along with very fine-grained graphite.

Two methods of tritium stripping are being evaluated, and also tritium storage.

The 10 MWt TMSR-SF1 will have TRISO fuel in 60mm pebbles, similar to HTR-PM fuel, and deliver coolant at 650°C and low pressure. Primary coolant is FLiBe (with 99.99% Li-7) and secondary coolant is FLiNaK. Core height is 3 m, diameter 2.85 m, in a 7.8 m high and 3 m diameter pressure vessel. Residual heat removal is passive, by cavity cooling. A 20-year operating life is envisaged. The TMSR-SF0 simulator is one-third scale, with FLiNaK cooling and a 400 kW electric heater.

The 2 MWt TMSR-LF1 is only at the conceptual design stage, but it will use fuel enriched to under 20% U-235, have a thorium inventory of about 50 kg and conversion ratio of about 0.1. FLiBe with 99.95% Li-7 would be used, and fuel as UF4. The project would start on a batch basis with some online refuelling and removal of gaseous fission products, but discharging all fuel salt after 5-8 years for reprocessing and separation of fission products and minor actinides for storage. It would proceed to a continuous process of recycling salt, uranium and thorium, with online separation of fission products and minor actinides. It would work up from about 20% thorium fission to about 80%.

Beyond these, a 373 MWt/168 MWe liquid-fuel MSR small modular reactor is planned, with supercritical CO2 cycle in a tertiary loop at 23 MPa using Brayton cycle, after a radioactive isolation secondary loop. Various applications as well as electricity generation are envisaged. It would be loaded with 15.7 tonnes of thorium and 2.1 tonnes of uranium (19.75% enriched), with one kilogram of uranium added daily, and have 330 GWd/t burn-up with 30% of energy from thorium. Online refuelling would enable eight years of operation before shutdown, with the graphite moderator needing attention.

The US Department of Energy is collaborating with the China Academy of Sciences on the program, which had a start-up budget of $350 million. TMSR commercial deployment is anticipated in the 2030s.

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Present Affairs MCQ for UPSC E xams – 30 April 2019


Current Affairs MCQ for UPSC E xams – 30 April 2019

Q1. Which of the following statements concerning the National Crisis
Management Committee (NCMC) are real ?

1) The National Crisis Management Committee is a irreversible committee set up
by the Federal government of India for reliable coordination and execution of
relief measures and operations during natural disasters.
2) When a situation is to be handled also by the NCMC, it will provide such
directions to the Crisis Management Group of the Ministry as deemed required.
3) It is headed by the central cabinet secretary.

a) 1 & 2 only
b) 2 & 3 just
c) 1 & 3 only
d) all of the above

Q2. Which of the following make up the core raw materials in a nuclear
reactor ?

1) Thorium
2) Uranium
3) Helium
4) Hydrogen
5) Zirconium

a) 1 & 2 just
b) 3,4& 5 only
c) 1,2,3 & 5 just
d) 2,3 & 4 only

Q3. Consider the following statements regarding just recently launched UN global
report on Antimicrobial resistance :

1) Antimicrobial resistance is one of the greatest hazards we face as a
global community.Currently, at least 7,00,000 people die each year due to
drug-resistant illness, including 2,30,000 people who die from multidrug-resistant
tuberculosis.
2) Without investment from countries in all income brackets, future generations
will face the dreadful effects of unrestrained antimicrobial resistance.
3) It has now suggested that nations prioritise nationwide action plans to
scale-up funding and capacity-building efforts, put in location more powerful
regulatory systems and assistance awareness programs for accountable and prudent
use of antimicrobials by specialists.

Which of the above declarations are real ?

a) 1 & 2 just
b) 2 & 3 just
c) 1 & 3 only
d) all of the above

Q4. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)
has identified in chickpea four essential genes for heat tolerance and three
important genes for dry spell tolerance.

Which of the streaming statements with respect to the exact same are true ?
1) With rising temperature levels and increasing climatic fluctuations due to environment
change, the identification of these climate-resistant genes will aid in
developing more recent chickpea ranges which can endure temperatures up to 38 °
C.
2) More than 90% of chickpea growing area is in South Asia, including India.
3) In India more than 70% yield is lost due to drought and increasing
temperatures as it is a cool season crop.

a) 1 & 2 just
b) 2 & 3 only
c) 1 & 3 only
d) all of the above

Q5. The World Health Data Report is launched by which of the following
global organisations ?

a) World bank
b) World Health Organisation
c) UN D evelopment Program ( UNDP)
d) UN environmental Program (UNEP)


ANSWER:


1(b), 2(c), 3(d), 4(a), 5(b)


.