Molten Salt Reactors

Benefits of Molten Salt Reactors

The advantages of MSRs are abundant, for this reason their durability as an fascinating topic throughout
reactor history. We break them down by subject here.


Sustainability is a procedure of how effectively a system can use natural resources. Most
traditional reactors can just burn about 1% of the uranium on Earth. Many sophisticated reactors,
including MSRs, can do much much better. Here’s why MSRs are excellent in this regard.

  • Online fission item elimination — Because the fuel is liquid, it can be
    processed during operation. This suggests that when atoms split into the smaller sized atoms (fission
    products), those little atoms can be gathered and pulled out of the core really quickly. This
    prevents those atoms from soaking up neutrons that would otherwise continue the chain
    reaction. This enables extremely high fuel efficiency in MSRs.
  • Good utilization of Thorium — As
    mentioned above, the MSR chemical plant can continuously get rid of fission items and other
    actinides throughout operation. This suggests that when Thorium takes in a neutron and ends up being
    Pa-233, the Protactinium can be eliminated from the core and permitted to decay to U-233 in
    peace, without any threat of causing parasitic neutron losses. While this is not the just way
    to burn Thorium, it is maybe the most sophisticated.
  • No neutron losses in structure — Because there is no structure like
    cladding, fuel ducts, grid spacers, and so on, there are no neutron losses in these. This helps
    fuel effectiveness and therefore sustainability.


Though economics are not genuinely known till a system is in industrial operation, there are reasons
to think MSRs would have favorable low cost.

  • Online refueling — Where regular reactors have to shut down to move fuel
    around or put new fuel in, MSRs can do all this while at full power. You simply dump in a new
    chunk of fuel into the vat (carefully, of course). This enables high capability aspects,
    improving economics. The reactors may still have to shut down to do maintenance, but they
    likely will have much better uptimes.
  • No fuel fabrication — Any business fuel fabricator will tell you that
    it is expensive to build fuel assemblies, fuel pellets, cladding tubes, core assistance
    structures, flow orifices, etc. MSRs are basically simply vats of fuel, so they are much
    simpler and less expensive in this regard.
  • High temperature levels possible — Molten salts were very first looked at for their
    ability to go to very high temperature levels. At high temperatures, power cycles transform heat to
    electricity with much less loss, giving you more cash for a provided amount of heat.
    Additionally, numerous industrial processes require state-of-the-art heat, and these reactors could be
    used to that while producing electrical energy. Best of all, MSRs can do high temperature without
    a pressurized coolant (as needed in gas-cooled reactors).
  • Smaller containment — Given that the system pressure is low and the heat
    capacity is high, the containments can be smaller and thinner.


The most important aspect of a nuclear reactor is security. Here’s the excellent news for

  • Very low excess reactivity — Because they can be constantly refueled,
    there is no requirement to load extra fissile product to permit the reactor to run for a long
    time. This implies that it is tough to have something happen (like an earthquake) that
    could cause a shift in geometry that inserts reactivity and triggers a power spike.
  • Negative temperature level coefficient of reactivity — In general, if the fuel
    heats up, it broadens and ends up being less reactive, keeping things stable. Note that this is not
    always true in graphite-moderated MSRs.
  • Low pressure — Given that the fuel and coolant are at climatic pressure, a
    leak in a tube doesn’t automatically result in the expulsion of a lot of fuel and
    coolant. This is a significant safety benefit that makes it possible for passive decay heat removal
    (preventing things like what occurred at Fukushima). The salts typically have exceptionally high
    heat capacity as well, so they can soak up a lot of heat themselves. On the other hand, their
    thermal conductivity is about 60 x even worse than liquid metal salt.
  • No chemical reactivity with air or water — The fuel salt is typically not
    violently reactive with the environment. So where LWRs have hydrogen explosions and SFRs
    have sodium fires, MSRs do well. Of course, MSR leaks are still major due to the fact that it’s
    not simply coolant … it’s very radioactive fuel.
  • Drain tank failure system — If something goes incorrect in a MSR and the
    temperature begins going up, a freeze plug can melt, pouring the entire core into
    subcritical drain tanks that are intimately linked to an ultimate heat sink, keeping them
    cool. This is an intriguing mishap mitigation function that is possible just in fluid fuel

Problems with Molten Salt Reactors

All those fantastic advantages can’t perhaps come without a multitude of issues. Lots of individuals
promote these reactors without acknowledging the concerns, but not us! A reactor idea has to stand
on its two feet even in the face of disadvantages (and we think the MSR can do this). Let’s go
through them.

Mobile fission items

The main issue with MSRs is that the radioactive fission products can get all over. They
are not in fuel pins surrounded by cladding, however are just in a huge, sealed vat. You can put a
double-layer containment around it, sure, however it is still challenging to keep them all accounted
for. Where some of these fission items and actinides are radioactive, others have chemical
effects that can consume away at the containment. The ramifications of this are numerous.

  • Material Degredation — with half the regular table of the components
    dissolved in salt and in contact with the containment vessel, there are lots of deterioration
    and related concerns. Noble metals will naturally plate out on cold metal surface areas. In a
    power reactor, a heat exchanger will be the coldest metal around, and so the heat transfer
    surfaces will need regular replacement. At MSRE, Tellurium triggered breaking of the
    Hastelloy-N material. This was reduced with chemistry, however comparable problems may show up in
    long-lived power reactors.
  • Tritium production If lithium is used in the salt, tritium will be produced,
    which is radioactive and extremely mobile (since it is small, it can go through metal like a
    hot knife through butter). ORNL used a special sodium fluoroborate intermediate salt to
    capture most of it, however a big amount still left to the environment.
  • Remote maintenance The chemical plants will requirement routine maintenance, but all
    of the devices will be extremely radioactive. Pricey remote upkeep will be needed.
    If graphite moderator is used, its replacement will likewise be remote and pricey.
  • Complex chemical plant — Some of the fission item elimination is basic,
    such as the gas sparging to remove Xe and Kr, and worthy metal plateout. However to do the more
    serious fission product (or actinide) separation, complex procedures are needed, such as
    the liquid Bismuth reductive process, volatilization, or electoplating. These have actually been
    studied in information, however are complex adequate to be a disadvantage. Don’t make us post a
    process flow diagram. (You can find one from the MSBR on page 8 of ORNL-TM-6413.)


The primary political barrier to MSRs is their viewed bomb-factory abilities. If you talk to
non-proliferation people, they will inform you that as
soon as the (solid) fuel pins are cut open, a technology is considered proliferative. The issue
with MSRs, then, is that the fuel is already entirely cut open and melted. You’re midway to
a bomb currently, they think. Here’s what they are worried about.

  • Protactinium-233 decomposes to pure, weapons-grade U-233 — Lots of Thorium-cycle
    MSRs have to capture Pa as it is produced, getting rid of it from the system while it decomposes to
    U-233 and then reinserting it into the reactor. They have to do this because otherwise the
    Pa-233 absorbs too lots of neutrons to preserve a reproducing cycle. The issue here is that that
    ex-core U-233 is essentially pure weapons-grade U-233 which might be used to make a bomb. It
    usually comes with Zr, however separating Pa from Zr is basic. Not many common reactors need
    such a proliferative action in their fuel cycle. Numerous MSR principles do not do this, however LFTRs
    require it. Therefore, the owner of a LFTR could be producing bombs on the side. Lots of of the
    ideas for alleviating this problem (such as U-232 contamination and denaturing) just help
    against diversion by a nefarious 3rd celebration. The owners of the plant might side-step these
    kinds of fixes easily, and that’s actually what matters.
  • Inventory tracking is hard — Because a lot of products plate out in the
    reactor and in the chemical plant, it is difficult to keep specific track of all of your
    actinides. The IAEA puts safeguards in reactors to make sure that all the actinides are
    accounted for (to validate that no one’s making bombs on the side) however it will be
    difficult for the IAEA to differentiate plate-out losses from real proliferative losses.

Other minor concerns

There are a couple of other concerns, however these most likely have practical options

  • Unknown waste type — It’s not clear what nuclear waste from
    MSRs will appearance like. The salt itself is not consisted of enough to be put in a
    repository so somebody will have to come up with a stable waste kind.
  • Electrical heating units are needed to stay liquid — in a prolonged power
    outage, the chillier parts of the heat transfer loop might solidify. This might cause
    temperatures to rise over in the core (which will of course still be self-heated liquid).

Exotics in the salt

For MSRs to breed in a thermal spectrum, the lithium in the salt must be enriched to very pure
Li-7. Li-6 is a strong neutron poison and becomes tritium, the pesky mobile radiation source. Likewise,
Beryllium in Flibe is a managed substance. It has some weapons applications and is a very
dangerous product in terms of biological inhalation threats. In chloride salts, you need to enrich to
have pure Cl-37. Otherwise, Cl-35 has a strong (n,proton) threshold reaction that toxins the
reactor. Likewise, the activation item Cl-36 is a long-lived, water soluble, difficult beta emitter that
complicates waste disposal. These enrichment requires increase the cost and complexity of MSR fuel
cycles. Possibly we can discover a more ideal salt at some point.


There are more specific issues with more particular types of MSRs, however you get the basic concept
here. Generally, MSRs are underdeveloped and need a lot more research study (especially in deterioration)
before they can surely take off as the world’s fleet of power plants. Personally, we think (as
did Alvin Weinberg and Edward Teller) that these reactors have a shining location in the mid-future.
Right now, we have to keep studying them! Fortunately, much work is continuous.

History of Molten Salt Reactors

Nuclear  powered  aircraft.  This  one  is  in  Idaho  at  the  EBR-I  museum.  It  wasn’t  in fact  molten  salt  cooled  however  it  reveals  that  they  were  severe.

The  Airplane  Reactor  Experiment,  the  very first  molten  salt  reactor. (NSE,2,  pp  804 -825,  1957)

The first fluid sustained reactors were built throughout the Manhattan task. They were Aqueous
Homogeneous Reactors (AHR), meaning they were solutions of uranium or plutonium in water. These
small reactors were mostly utilized to research study plutonium. Later (concurrently to MSR advancement),
several AHR test reactors were developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (these were the Homogeneous
Reactor Experiments HRE-1 and HRE-2). Molten salt fuels were very first developed of in the late 1940 s,
when people started thinking of nuclear powered planes! The concept was to have very long range
bombers in the air at all times. To heat air to high enough temperature levels to supply thrust, such a
nuclear reactor would requirement extremely high temperature levels and very high power densities. The Aircraft
Nuclear Propulsion program was a huge effort, and most of the early research studies of molten salts were
done under its direction. The first molten salt reactor, the Airplane Reactor Experiment (ARE)
operated in 1954 at ORNL with a Na-Zr-U salt for 100 hours. This reactor in fact had fuel pumping
through tubes in obstructs of Beryllium. When inter-continental ballistic rockets came along, this
program was immediately canceled.

After the cancellation of the ANP job, the individuals at ORNL wanted to usage their MSR abilities to
build a business power plant. In 1956, ORNL director Alvin Weinberg worked with a person called MacPherson
to form a group at ORNL to develop such a thing. To be effective, they needed a fuel salt that
absorbed really few neutrons, dissolved much uranium and thorium, was thermally stable, and was
chemically compatible with structural products. They chose the fluorides were finest, but
UF4 had a very high melting temperature level (1035 C). Mixed with BeF2, the melting
temperature ended up being useful, but the viscosity was too high. Mixing in some LiF brought the
viscosity down. Therefore was born UF4-LiF-BeF2, now understood as Flibe. Building
of a test reactor called the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) started in 1962 utilizing this salt
(with a bit of ZrF4), and the plant started operation in 1966. In 1968, all the uranium was
extracted and replaced with U-233, the fissile nuclide of the Thorium cycle. Hence, MSRE was the
first reactor to operate on U-233. The reactor was shut down on schedule in 1969 as financing was set
to go towards designing and building a bigger model MSR called the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor

But it would not be so! The Atomic Energy Commission (the ancestor of the Dept. of Energy) could
not be convinced to put more cash into the molten salt job. For one thing, they were currently
over spending plan on a extremely big and expensive fast-breeder
project. Besides, there were some big issues at MSRE that some individuals were not persuaded might be
solved. ORNL director Alvin Weinberg put much energy into keeping the program going, but it was not
destined to be. Funding was mostly canceled and MSRs lost their momentum.

MSR work continued at a low spending plan. The ORNL specialists came up with most likely solutions to most of the
problems raised at the MSRE. When expansion issues about the MSR were brought up in the 1980 s,
ORNL developed (on paper) something called the denatured MSR, or DMSR that was not fissile
self-sufficient, however still offered favorable performance in contrast to conventional reactors.
Others throughout the world worked on salt chemistry problems and developed lots of other designs,
including some chloride salt quick breeder MSRs. Much later, in 2001, the MSR was chosen by the
Generation IV forum as one of the 6 Gen-IV ideas. This jump-started work on MSRs and engineers
and chemists have actually produced much excellent work on them given that then.

Salt-cooled reactors

The step-sister reactor of the MSR is the fluoride cooled high temperature reactor (FHR). These
reactors have solid fuel in the form of TRISO particles (like the high temperature gas-cooled
reactor), but rather than pumping high-pressure helium coolant through, they pump low-pressure
liquid salt (usually Flibe) through. The idea here is to get the high-temperature and high-burnup
benefits of the gas reactors without the danger of a depressurization mishap. Salt coolant has
incredible heat capability (but low thermal conductivity), so it does a good job of managing
accidents. These reactors are currently being studied by the DOE and lots of others (including the
Chinese). Here is a
presentation by one of the PIs at MIT.

Ongoing Molten Salt Reactor Work

There is continuous work in MSRs around the world. The Europeans are working on MOSART, the Japanese
have FUJI, the Americans are focused on the FHR. In 2011, the Chinese Academy of Science began a
project in Shanghai to put substantial resources into MSR innovation. There are 300 -500 individuals on
the project, with a budget plan in the hundreds of millions. The majority of of the work is on FHRs, but there is
definitely MSR work as well. They are manufacturing Hastelloy-N, separating lithium, structure salt
loops, and structure advanced modeling capabilities. That job is most most likely the most
interesting in MSRs since 1969. They strategy on having both an experimental 2 MW FHR and an
experimental 2 MW MSR operational by 2020.

Several start-up companies have emerged to commercialize molten salt reactors. Hailing from MIT,
Leslie Dewan and Mark Massie began Transatomic to
build a MSR sustained mostly by processed nuclear waste from conventional reactors. In Canada, Terrestrial Energy is working on little modular MSRs,
featuring small reactor vessels that can be switched out of a plant every 7 years or so. ThorCon is utilizing its substantial experience in the ship-building
industry to develop MSRs that requirement no new technology and can be constructed in the very near term. In
Alabama, Kirk Sorensen himself runs a business called Flibe
targeting the development of little modular Thorium-MSRs. These companies represent the
modern revival of interest in MSRs and we dream them all the best!

See Also


Specific referrals coming quickly. Nearly all of this details was compiled from the amazing library
of ORNL reports available online
. This stuff is pure gold.


Better yards and gardens: Producing an environmentally friendly lawn

Hello, individuals! This is our weekly newsletter on all things ecological, where we highlight patterns and solutions that are moving us to a more sustainable world. (Sign up here to get it in your inbox every Thursday.)

This week:

The green turf of house: How to grow an ‘alternative’ lawn

(Taylor Logan/CBC)

For many individuals, their yard is a source of tremendous pride and the things of terrific care. However “turf” yards are not naturally occurring plants — and that has more comprehensive implications.

The principle of a lawn came from in middle ages times, on the land outside European castles. The brief yard made it possible for watchmen to see good friends or foes approaching from afar. Lawns quickly became something of a status symbol among the abundant.

Today, lawns still hold visual appeal, but they likewise have considerable ecological impacts. 

During the summertime months, water use in Canada peaks, and a half to three-quarters of all municipally treated water is used for lawns. To keep them looking their finest, many of us have historically turned to pesticides and herbicides that infect soil, water, grass and other plants. Pesticides and herbicides can also be toxic to fish and bugs important to the ecosystem of our gardens.

Lawns are considered carbon sinks — i.e., they absorb more carbon than they release as carbon dioxide. However a study by Appalachian State University says that if you take into consideration the amount of energy that goes into producing fertilizer and fresh water, as well as cutting, lawns overall produce more greenhouse gases than they can take in. 

Plus, lawns produce homogeneity of greenery when a variety of plant life is essential for a strong and healthy community. Without variety, pollinators, bugs, birds and other wildlife have nothing to eat and no place to live. So what’s the option?

“Replacing lawns with native environments is the best alternative, however other practices likewise can decrease impacts,” stated Amanda Rodewald, a professor and senior director of conservation science at Cornell University. 

The best method to produce a native habitat is by developing an alternative lawn. Substitutes include xeriscaping and permaculture, and are known to be better for the environment. 

  • Xeriscaping (pronounced “zerascaping”) changes yard with low-water, low-maintenance plants, such as succulents, cacti and warm environment grasses. Perfect for warm weather condition areas, xeriscaping can reduce water usage by up to 60 per cent, and only needs periodic weeding and mulching, therefore cutting the output of greenhouse gases into the air.

  • Permaculture is a farm-like system that takes a varied variety of plants and cultivates them into a garden that sustains itself. Rather of having one type of plant that requires fertilizer and pesticides, a permaculture combines plants that complement each other’s environment, developing a more nitrogen-rich ground and smothering unnecessary weeds. Developing a permaculture garden can be done in any environment with a little research study, and depending on the size, will only requirement a couple of hours a month at most to keep.

If you can’t modification your yard to be the perfect environment, Rodewald recommends lowering the size of your yard by integrating native flowers, shrubs and trees that are appealing and assistance biodiversity. Beyond that, she encourages taking a more laissez-faire mindset.

“If your lawn is needed, eliminating the use of chemicals, mowing less frequently and letting turf be taller can minimize energy usage, water requires and attract a greater variety of pollinators.”

Taylor Logan


If you’ve got remarks or ideas, let us know.

Old problems of What on Earth? are here.

How to create a vermicompost bin

(Taylor Logan/CBC)

In the last problem of the newsletter, I mentioned the vermicompost bin my roomie and I developed in our house. Because then, I have actually gotten a lot of concerns about what it is and how to make one. 

Here are some little tips on creating your own no-mess vermicompost bin.

Vermicomposting uses worms to transform food scraps into castings (a fancy name for worm poop), which is a extremely abundant kind of fertilizer. Red worms (also known as “red wigglers”) are the finest kind for composting. You can get them online or at a regional bait store. Although some people might not find worms the most enjoyable animals to have living in your house, they’re a excellent method to create a stink-free garden compost bin. And as long as you’re feeding your wiggly friends, they’ll stay safely out of sight in their bin.

First, you’ll requirement a box with a lid (wood, metal or plastic is great) as well as dirt, newspapers and food scraps. Drill small holes in the side of your box, near the lid and cover with netting. (We utilized an old pair of pantyhose and hot glue.) Then lay down a layer of damp paper, fill the box one-third of the way with dirt and put in your worms. Around 250 to 500 worms will do. 

The worms will begin burrowing. Once they’re underground, cover the dirt with conserved up food scraps and cover as soon as again with a layer of dirt. Make sure to avoid citrusy, spicy or difficult food, as the worms can’t absorb these. If the worms come to the leading, it implies the compost is too wet. To fix that, leave the cover off in the sun for 20 minutes.

Now you have your own vermicompost bin. Stir once a week and enjoy your new little buddies!

Taylor Logan

The Huge Photo: Net-zero carbon targets

We’ve seen a number of countries recently offer timelines for when they objective to be “net-zero carbon,” which means either balancing carbon emissions with carbon removal (through carbon capture and offsets) or going carbon-free. Here’s a list of where the most ambitious nations stand.


Hot and troubled: Provocative concepts from around the web

What’s the offer with thorium?

(Pallava Bagla/Corbis by means of Getty Images)

A few months ago, we looked at the pros and cons of nuclear power. More just recently, CBC N ews took a closer appearance at small modular reactors and how new innovation might fuel nuclear’s return

That prompted some of you to write in asking about thorium as a potentially greener nuclear fuel alternative to uranium.

According to the World Nuclear Company, thorium has a few benefits over uranium:

  • It’s 3 or 4 times more abundant in the Earth’s crust.

  • It creates lower levels of nuclear waste, especially the kind that takes more than 10,000 years to decay.

  • The usage of thorium in most reactor types leads to “extra security margins.”

So, offered years of experimentation in Canada and around the world, why are there no business reactors out there running generally on thorium?

A huge difficulty is that you can’t create nuclear power directly from thorium — first, it has to be converted into uranium (though not the same kind normally utilized in reactors). And what’s the secret catalyst for that conversion? Well, typically, it’s regular uranium nuclear fuel.

That means “thorium fuel” is constantly a mix of thorium and uranium, which makes things more costly and complicated in a traditional nuclear reactor, and doesn’t eliminate the difficulties associated with uranium.

The benefits of utilizing thorium “don’t always exceed the costs,” stated Markus Piro, an assistant teacher at Ontario Tech University, who holds a Canada Research Study Chair in Nuclear Fuels and Products. “At this point, there’s not a whole lot of interest in Canada.”

That’s because uranium works, Piro stated. “And we have lots of it.”

Piro kept in mind that since uranium nuclear fuel is combined in with the thorium fuel, long-term disposal will still requirement to be in the very same kind of underground repository with the same requirements as with traditional uranium fuel.

There are two things that could make thorium more attractive in certain scenarios:

  • Countries such as India and China are interested because they have minimal uranium and more plentiful thorium resources.

  • New reactor designs, such as molten salt reactors, might be much better suited to thorium. That’s since such reactors use liquid fuel, where various parts can be quickly processed and separated, including the waste.

Piro sees “potential” in thorium fuel, however said the true power advantages lie in the style of the reactor. “The excitement, the benefits and all that actually come with the reactor technology as a entire.”

Emily Chung

Stay in touch!

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Editor: Andre Mayer | Logo design: Sködt McNalty


Why nuclear when India has an ‘ocean’ of energy

If it is right that absolutely nothing can stop an concept whose time has come, it must be real the other way too — nothing can hold back an concept whose time has passed.

Just blow the dust off, you’ll see the composing on the wall: nuclear energy is quickly running out of sand, at least in India. And there is something that is waiting to take its location.

India’s 6,780 MW of nuclear power plants contributed to less than 3% of the country’s electricity generation, which will come down as other sources will produce more.

Perhaps India lost its nuclear game in 1970, when it refused to indication – even if with the best of reasons – the Non Proliferation Treaty, which left the country to bootstrap itself into nuclear energy. Just there never ever was enough strap in the boot to do so.

In the 1950 s, the famous physicist Dr. Homi Bhabha offered the country a roadmap for the development of nuclear energy.

Three-stage program

In the now-famous ‘three-stage nuclear programme’, the roadmap laid out what requires to be done to ultimately usage the nation’s nearly limitless Thorium resources. The very first stage would see the development of a fleet of ‘pressurised heavy water reactors’, which usage scarce Uranium to produce some Plutonium. The second stage would see the setting up of a number of ‘fast breeder reactors’ (FBRs). These FBRs would use a mixture of Plutonium and the reprocessed ‘spent Uranium from the very first phase, to produce energy and more Plutonium (hence ‘breeder’), due to the fact that the Uranium would transmute into Plutonium. Along with, the reactors would transform some of the Thorium into Uranium-233, which can likewise be utilized to produce energy. After 3 -4 years of operation, the FBRs would have actually produced enough Plutonium for use in the ‘third phase’. In this phase, Uranium-233 would be used in specially-designed reactors to produce energy and convert more Thorium into Uranium-233—you can keep including Thorium constantly.

Seventy years down the line, India is still stuck in the very first stage. For the second stage, you requirement the fast breeder reactors. A P rototype Quick Breeder Reactor (PFBR) of 500 MW capability, building of which began method back in 2004, is yet to come on stream.

The problem is apparently anxiety about handling liquid Sodium, used as a coolant. If Sodium comes in contact with water it will take off; and the PFBR is being built on the humid coast of Tamil Nadu. The PFBR has constantly been a task that would go on stream “next year”. The PFBR has to come online, then more FBRs would need to be constructed, they ought to then operate for 30 -40 years, and only then would begin the wished for ‘Thorium cycle’! Nor is much capability coming under the existing, ‘first stage’. The 6,700 MW of plants under building and construction would, some day, add to the existing nuclear capacity of 6,780 MW. The federal government has actually sanctioned another 9,000 MW and there is no understanding when work on them will begin. These are the home-grown plants. Of course, thanks to the popular 2005 ‘Indo-U.S. nuclear deal’, there are prepares for more tasks with imported reactors, however a 2010 Indian ‘nuclear liability’ legislation has afraid the foreigners away. With all this, it is challenging to see India’s nuclear capability going beyond 20,000 MW over the next 2 years.

Now, the concern is, is nuclear energy worth it all?

There have actually been three arguments in favour of nuclear energy: tidy, low-cost and can provide electrical power 24 x7 (base load). Clean it is, assuming that you could take care of the ticklish issue of putting away the highly harmful spent fuel.

But cheap, it no longer is. The average expense of electricity produced by the existing 22 reactors in the nation is around ₹2.80 a kWhr, however the new plants, which cost ₹15-20 crore per MW to set up, will produce energy that can not be offered commercially below at least ₹7 a unit. Nuclear power is pricing itself out of the market. A nuclear power plant takes a decade to come up, who understands where the expense will end up when it starts generation of electrical power?

Nuclear plants can offer the ‘base load’ — they provide a constant stream of electrical power day and night, simply like coal or gas plants. Wind and solar power plants produce energy much more affordable, however their power supply is irregular. With gas not readily available and coal on its way out due to factors of cost and worldwide warming issues, nuclear is in some cases regarded as the saviour. But we wear’t need that saviour any more; there is a now a much better option.

Ocean energy

The seas are literally throbbing with energy. There are at least numerous sources of energy in the seas. One is the bobbing motion of the waters, or ocean swells — you can location a flat surface on the waters, with a mechanical arm attached to it, and it becomes a pump that can be used to drive water or compressed air through a turbine to produce electrical energy. Another is by tapping into tides, which flow during one part of the day and ebb in another. You can generate electricity by transporting the tide and place a series of turbines in its path. One more way is to keep turbines on the sea bed at locations where there is a existing — a river within the sea. Yet another method is to get the waves dash against pistons in, say, a pipe, so as to compress air at the other end. Sea water is dense and heavy, when it moves it can punch hard — and, it never stops moving.

All these approaches have been attempted in pilot plants in numerous parts of the world—Brazil, Denmark, U.K., Korea. There are only 2 business plants in the world—in France and Korea—but then ocean energy has engaged the world’s attention.

For sure, ocean energy is costly today.

India’s Gujarat State Power Corporation had a tie-up with U.K.’s Atlantic Resources for a 50 MW tidal task in the Gulf of Kutch, however the task was offered up after they discovered they could offer the electricity only at ₹13 a kWhr. But then, even solar cost ₹18 a unit in 2009! When technology improves and scale-effect kicks-in, ocean energy will appearance genuine friendly.

Initially, ocean energy would need to be incentivised, as solar was. Where do you discover the cash for the rewards? By paring allowances to the Department of Atomic Energy, which got ₹13,971 crore for 2019 -20.

Also, wind and solar now stand on their own legs and those aids could now be given to ocean energy.


Why the next Area Policy Regulation needs to be to the Secretary of Energy

SBSP  illustration

Space-based solar power is an idea whose time may have come, at least in the views of some in China, needing the US to respond appropriately. (credit: NASA)

Bookmark  and  Share

For the first time in decades, the United States deals with a severe difficulty. A brand-new area race is upon us to secure the benefits of a large and broadening space economy. Whether it was grain for horses and soldiers; wind and waterwheels for factories; coal for railways; coal or oil for steamships; petroleum for cars and trucks, tanks, and aircrafts; or atomic energy for cities and submarines, energy has been main to both commerce and military power.

To safe America’s continuing benefit in the area domain, the President should tap the Secretary of Energy to develop an instant and sustained action to safe space energy dominance.

At the center of China’s prepares to surpass the United States as the leading spacepower by 2045 are huge aspirations for space energy dominance. China’s military has currently begun a peacetime strategic offensive to safe and secure a position of energy dominance. Within this grand strategy are 4 different initiatives that need a reaction:

  1. Energy maneuverability dominance utilizing area sourced propellant
  2. Global energy supremacy with space solar power and space power beaming
  3. Deep space maneuver benefit with nuclear propulsion
  4. Fusion energy benefit with helium-3

While there is considerable ability within both NASA and the DoD, the bulk of our country’s competence that can be brought to bear to respond to the Individuals’s Republic of China’s peacetime military offensive lies within our Department of Energy. To protected America’s continuing advantage in the space domain, the President should tap the Secretary of Energy to establish (in concert with NASA and the US S speed Force) an instant and continual reaction to protected area energy supremacy. To guarantee continued focus, the DoE should rearrange internally and sit on the National Space Council.

Energy maneuverability supremacy utilizing area sourced propellant

US Air Force fighter pilot John Boyd was the first to present the principle of Energy Maneuverability Theory as an explanation of maneuver benefit. Lowering energy expenses are secret to minimizing cost and time to market for in-space transport of products for in-space building and construction. Energy maneuverability advantage is also key to both fight benefit and military logistical advantage. There are particular positions within the Earth-Moon system that offer substantial maneuver advantage. The ability to source rocket fuel from the Moon or asteroids is a substantial force multiplier. The lunar poles are equivalent to forward coaling stations during our nation’s marine expansion, and propellant depots offer force extension analogous to aerial refueling. The PRC’s tactically smart push to secure access to the “great lakes”of frozen water ice (600 million metric loads) need to be met in kind with our own national willpower to access lunar propellant to build on-orbit propellant depots and refuelers.

The freshly formed US S pace Command is already behind the PRC in lacking its own peacetime strategic military offensive, and will be run-down in its duty if it does not right away specify the requirements to the Pentagon’s Joint Requirements Oversight Council and National Area Council for space-sourced propellant, in-space refueling, and in-space transport to meet the PRC challenge.

As a remedy for this circumstance, the Administration need to task the Secretary of Energy to coordinate with the NASA A dministrator, Commandant of the US S pace Force, and Secretary of Commerce, to develop a plan to retire all technical risk for a cryogenic hydrogen/oxygen propellant depot with reversible fuel cells for electrolysis, and a parallel strategy for a Lunar Industrial Center (LIF) to produce and launch the needed water-ice to renew it. The strategy needs to establish objectives and standards for refueling of reusable lunar landers.

Global energy dominance with space solar power and area power beaming

Central to the PRC’s plans is to develop the innovation to develop very big on-orbit power stations capable of catching gigawatts of power and beaming it to Earth and anywhere in the Earth-Moon system. Even at the megawatt class prepared for their 2030 prototype, this is a game-changing dual-use technology. The United States at present has, at a lot of, 100 kilowatts of power on the Worldwide Space Station.

The DOE program should seek, via public-private partnerships, to retire the technical risk toward commercially practical utility-scale space solar power.

The tactical threat, though, fades in significance to the tactical hazard. The PRC’s strategic strategy to take over United States hegemonic power is to produce—through continual nationwide effort—the innovation to build solar power satellites, and then to usage the material from the Moon to build them cheaply to become the significant supplier of Earth-based energy. Power that is city-baseload proper, that can scale to the whole of international need, that can be sent anywhere on Earth as required, and that is 100 percent green and non-carbon producing will be appealing to most nations. Today the Persian Gulf and the couple of chokepoints for oil are the strategic center, with the secret energy manufacturers—the US, Russia, OPEC—having considerable coercive power. If the PRC succeeds in its plans, it will be the significant energy supplier to world Earth, and with that, huge economic power to force others to submit to their geopolitical designs.

To fulfill this strategic difficulty, the administration need to task the Secretary of Energy, at a minimum, to preserve parity and seek tactical advantage with regard to business space solar power and beamed energy production. This program ought to not look like the DOE’s fusion science program, which has no timeline or objective for commercial energy production. Rather, the DOE program ought to look for, by means of public-private collaborations, to retire the technical risk towards commercially practical utility-scale space solar power.

Central to this goal ought to be a buddy and parallel method to establish multiple public-private partnerships at a Lunar Commercial Center (LIF) with the goal of mining, benefacting, and launching 90 percent of the structural mass required to build a model megawatt-class solar power satellite model in geostationary orbit ahead of the PRC strategies for 2035—the aim need to be a 100- megawatt center in GEO by 2034.

Deep space maneuver advantage with nuclear propulsion

America has long understood that true spacefaring will require nuclear power propulsion. For a years it led the field with project NERVA, and again later on with job TIMBERWIND and Space Nuclear Test Program (SNTP). However a absence of political nerve let this management suffer. Now the PRC is open with its style to have nuclear shuttle bus making it possible for it access for asteroid mining, exploitation, and colonization by 2040. Nuclear thermal rockets have more than two times the efficiency of standard rockets, making it possible for much larger payloads and much much shorter travel times in the solar system. It would be like asking a merchant fleet equipped with only sails to keep up with a merchant fleet equipped with oil. Or, it would be like asking an air force equipped with props to contend with an air force with all jet fighters. To contend successfully as a area power, the United States must have a matching peacetime strategic offensive in area nuclear power and propulsion.

Therefore, the Administration ought to task the Secretary of Energy to build a portfolio of public-private collaborations to ensure continual United States benefit in advanced space propulsion, including fission, fusion, antimatter and high-energy beamed propulsion. At a minimum, it should ensure parity such that the US is never ever behind on any considerable test or release timeline for nuclear propulsion. In every case, the DOE ought to have a shift technique to a private US commercial provider comparable to the NASA industrial cargo and crew programs.

Fusion energy benefit with helium-3

The PRC’s focus to possibility for lunar helium-3 is evidence of the broader strategic intent to lead in fusion power and fusion space propulsion. The truth that today’s innovation can not attain continual “over-unity” blend is immaterial—we understand that physics makes this possible, and it is simply a matter of continual investment and ingenuity till this is accomplished. Already there are various business in the United States and other countries developing combination technologies using compact devices, and even fusion-powered rockets. These are all starved for funding because of a lack of national function and an hesitation to face the reality of a serious rival for space hegemony. Helium-3 is prized since as a combination fuel, it produces virtually no neutron radiation, allowing for sustained fusion that neither degrades the reactor structure nor produces hazardous radiation to humans. Notably, there is not just thousands of years of helium-3 on the lunar surface, however substantial concentrations of helium-3 in the external solar system.

Therefore, the Administration ought to job the Secretary of Energy to develop a long-term method to establish a portfolio of public-private partnerships to lead commercial fusion development for space power and area propulsion, with a parallel method to establish an ability to mine lunar helium-3.

The worth of lunar industrialization and a lunar industrial center

At the nexus of each of these strategic efforts is the Moon. This administration’s focus on returning to the Moon rapidly is laudable. It is also meaningful to hear real conversation of sustainability, of reusability and of making usage of the resources of the Moon. However, without a specific strategy to set up a lunar industrial facility—without articulated milestones for material production—it is worthless and ephemeral.

It will take at least a generation to undo the hostage “close area support” mentality of the existing generation and, through education, construct a prospering generation of space specialists focused on the strategic measurements of spacepower.

A push to the lunar surface area without a clear plan for commercial development is a tactical error of the very first order. What matters the to future of American power is not who gets to the Moon or Mars first, however who can make use of the energy and material resources of the Moon to transform to financial power and to the military-logistical power required to safe that space commerce from coercion.

Therefore, the most important policy choice is to decide on the building of a Lunar Industrial Center (LIF) that will develop the needed industrial and logistical elements of the new space economy. That need to be done with the private sector, and with the intention of production at scale. That is not expedition. NASA’s multi-decade tone-deafness to exploitation and industrialization at scale, versus unique exploration, likely implies the United States can not delegate the long-term security of its interests to NASA, which stays exploration and destination focused.

The Department of Defense has also showed a similar tone-deafness to even military logistical development, believing that peacetime military offensives and advancement of dual-use industries must be “somebody else’s job.” The fact that military logistical development of cislunar area has not been a part of the posture statements of US S trategic Command, of the Secretary of the Air Force, Chief of Personnel of the Air Force, or Air Force Space Command demonstrate the extant absence of vision of space as an independent instrument of national power; it is the most compelling factor for the push by Congress and the Administration for a devoted Space Command and Area Force. Nevertheless, because the leadership will be the very same actors, neither the Administration nor Congress can be confident that our military space specialists will secure American interests. It will take at least a generation to undo the hostage “close space support” mindset of the current generation and, through education, develop a succeeding generation of area specialists focused on the tactical dimensions of spacepower. Sadly, we can not wait that long to respond to the extant and growing subversion of our national security.

America, a nation of pioneers, inhabitants, and entrepreneurs, looks for a vision meaningful enough to activate them. Developing the huge energy and material resources of the inner solar system for totally free peoples is that vision; a new American Dream.

The Department of Commerce certainly appreciates the strategic truths and is prepared to lead, but it lacks the vast publicly-owned centers of our national laboratories or their considerable technical budget and expertise. Therefore, due to the fact that energy in the kind of fuel, propellant, power, and propulsion are absolutely central to continued United States economic and military benefit, the Administration should mobilize the Department of Energy to safe and secure America’s future advantage in area.

Given the substantial lead that the PRC has in their own peacetime armed force advantage, the Administration need to not hold-up in providing a Area Policy Regulation that puts the Secretary of Energy on the National Area Council, and jobs them to develop, lead, and carry out a strategy to ensure American space energy supremacy.

That Area Policy Regulation ought to job clearly the DOE to:

  1. Develop (in concert with NASA, Dept of Commerce, and DoD) prepares for a scalable Lunar Industrial Facility with optimum usage of public-private partnerships to establish mining, benefaction, in-situ manufacture and launch at-scale to be provided to the National Space Council before January 1, 2020.
  2. Develop a strategy to ensure parity and pursue benefit in sophisticated space nuclear power and propulsion, guaranteeing a roadway to commercial transition with a flight presentation of a nuclear thermal rocket no later than 2024.
  3. Develop technologies and commercial companies for cryogenic propellant depots and extraction of lunar propellant for commercial and government use with initial operations start no later on than 2028.
  4. Develop prospecting studies and innovation to gain access to lunar nuclear material (uranium, thorium, and helium-3) with initial operations beginning in 2028.
  5. Develop a strategy for a Lunar Commercial Facility to produce 90 percent of the structural mass of parts for a 100- megawatt prototype solar power satellite in GEO by 2034.

A vision of area expedition is too little for America. America, a nation of leaders, inhabitants, and entrepreneurs, seeks a vision meaningful adequate to activate them. Developing the large energy and product resources of the inner solar system for free peoples is that vision; a brand-new American Dream. This is the American dream with financial and military effects large adequate to win or lose the next American century. America has what it takes to come from behind and win this huge frontier of opportunity however it should not hold-up.

The mission of the Energy Department is to guarantee America’s security and success by attending to its energy, environmental, and nuclear challenges through transformative science and technology options.

The Secretary of Energy bears a special responsibility since just those in the Department of Energy are in a position to appreciate the nearly inestimable advantage that area energy dominance will supply to the nation that protects it. Its large resources and talent ought to not be left un-mobilized in this brand-new area race, however to mobilize them a Area Policy Instruction is required.

Note: we are temporarily moderating all remarks subcommitted to offer with a rise in spam.


Test Quiz

Test Quiz – GKToday

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Which of the following ancient Indian Kings had appointed Dhamma Mahamattas?


Consider the following statements:
1. Andal was a woman Alvar whose compositions were widely sung.
2. Karaikkal Ammaiyar was a devotee of Shiva who adopted the path of extreme asceticim in order to attain her goal
Which of the above statements is / are correct?


Nābhivarṣa is the historical name of which of the following countries?


Which of the following Greek Explorers is considered to have left the earliest account of India?


Which of the following is not a correct observation as mentioned by Megasthenes about India?


Hathigumpha inscription gives account of which of the following rulers?


Who among the following is the author of oldest surviving Prakrit grammar Prākrita Prakāśa?


Which of the following term is used for a “school” of learning and teaching the branches of Vedas?


Which of the following is not a correct feature of Rig-Vedic economy?


Which of the following Kingdoms were associated with the life of the Buddha?
1. Avanti
2. Gandhara
3. Kosala
4. Magadha
Select the correct answer using the code given below:


Which among the following is the most unique feature of Dholavira site of the Indus Valley Civilization?


The Satapatha Brahmana and Taitriya Brahmana are the Brahmana texts of ___:


Who among the following was the 23rd Jain Tirthankara ?


Which among the following Vakataka ruler performed all the seven sacrifices viz. Agnishtoma, Aptoryama, Ukthya, Shodasin, Atiratra, Vajapeya, Brihaspatisava, Sadyaskra and four Asvamedhas ?


Which among the following places have given the earliest evidence of agriculture in Indian subcontinent?


As per Asoka’s inscriptions, which among the following place was declared tax free and proclaimed only 1/8th part as taxable?


The rulers of which dynasty make land grants to Brahmanas?


Which of the following ruler of Satavahana Empire composed Gathasaptashati?


Which of the following inscription are related to Satavahana period?


Which among the following Satkarni ruler recovered Malwa from the Shaka rulers?


The famous book ‘Brihat Katha’ was written by__?


Who were the first rulers in India to issue gold coins attributed to the Kings?


Which Greek ambassador set up a pillar in honour of Vishnu?


Menander I, the famous Indo-Greek ruler set up his capital at which place?


Which Buddhist monk converted Milinda (Indo-Greek king) to Buddhism?


The conversation between Nagasena and Menander-I related to Buddhism is recorded in which book?


Which Greek King of Bactria invaded India about 190 B.C.?


The governors called Strategos were introduced by __?


Who was the first Saka king in India?


The reign of which of the following reigns was known as golden age for Mathura school of art?


During the reign of which Kushana king, the Fourth Buddhist Council was held?


In the Junagarh inscription, which among the following Saka ruler achievements are highlighted?


Which among the following is an extant Shaka of the Rigveda Samhita?


Who among the following were teachers of Gautama Buddha before his enlightenment ?
1. Alara Kalama
2. Udraka Ramputra 3. Makkhali Gosala 4. Nigantha Nataputta Indicate your answer from the codes given below.


Which of the following Upanishads is written in prose ?


With which among the following places, the twenty third Jain Tirthankara was associated?


Who among the following laid down for punishment for a person becoming mendicant without making adequate provision for dependent wife and children?


Which of the following pairs is not correctly matched ?


The Mahasamghika School arose at which among the following places?


The rulers of which among the following dynasties adopted the title Devaputra ?


Rulers of which of the following dynasties maintained diplomatic relations with distant countries such as Syria in the West ?


Who identified “Sandrokottus” of the Greco-Roman literature with Chandragupta Maurya?


The beneficiaries of Asoka’s donations in the region of Barabar Hill were__?


In which of the following inscriptions Ashoka made his famous declaration, “All men are my children”?


Who among the following is known to have performed four Asvamedha sacrifices ?


Who among the following was the ruler of Kanchi during the time of Samudragupta ?


Which one of the following places was a mint centre of the Yaudheyas ?


Who among the following was the first Satavahana King to introduce the Ruler’s head on the coins ?


Garuda was adopted as dynastic emblem after the imperial Guptas by ___?


The title “Paramasaugata” was adopted by ___?


Parnadatta was appointed the Provincial Governor of Saurashtra by __?


Which of the following pairs is not correctly matched ?


The rulers of which among the following dynasties called themselves “Brahma-Kshatriay”?


Which among the following two dynasties of the Northern India confronted with the Rashtrakutas?


In context with the Mahayana Buddhism faith, the future Buddha is ___?


Which among the following village was the site of the Vikramshila Mahavihara, the renowned educational centre of Pala period?


Emperor Akbar conferred the title of Jagatguru upon which among the following Jaina Philosophers?


The Aryans dedicated whole of a separate Mandala in Rig-Veda for the hymns dedicated to __?


The Boghazkoi inscription was discovered in __?


Which one is the longest epic of the world?


Who was ‘Kanthaka’ in the context of Gautam Buddha?


According to Buddhist traditions, who was Charioteer of Buddha?


What symbol represents birth of Gautama Buddha?


What symbol represents nirvana of Gautama Buddha?


During whose reign was the Fourth Buddhist Council held?


First Buddhist Council was held during the reign of which of the following kings?


Who presided Second Buddhist Council?


Who presided Fourth Buddhist Council?


Who presided First Buddhist Council?


In which Buddhist Council, Buddhism was divided into Mahayana and Hinayana sects?


During whose reign Mahayana sect of Buddhism came into existence?


Abhidhamma pitaka deals in which of the following?


Which among the following Buddhist scripture deals in the teachings of Buddhism?


Which among the following Buddhist scripture deals in the moral code of conduct?


Which sect of Buddhism does not believe in idol-worship?


The University of Nalanda was set up by which Gupta ruler?


The Vikramshila University was set up by which ruler of Pala dynasty?


The Vallabhi University was set up by which ruler?


Gautma Buddha’s mother ‘Mahamaya’ belongs to which tribe?


Which among the following Bodhisattva holds thunderbolt?


Which among the following University was founded by Ramapala, the ruler of Pala dynasty?


Which of the following Pala ruler founded the Somapuri University?


In the Rigvedic Dasrajan Yudha (Battle of Ten Kings) the Bharatas emerged winner at the bank of __?


In which among the following sacrifices, the sacrificial materials used was sura in Vedic Era?


Who among the following was the author of Abhidhamma treatise Kathavatthu?


The last Mauryan ruler, who was killed by his Commander-in-Chief was __?


The Kushans issues the coins made of __? 1. Gold 2. Silver 3. Copper Choose the correct option from the codes given below:


Which among the following is / are the terms used for coins of the Gupta period? 1. Dinara 2. Dramma 3. Rupaka 4. Suvarna Choose the correct answer from the codes given below:


The cotton cloth worn by Indians had a brighter white colour than any cotton found elsewhere. This view was recorded by __?


Vallabhi era is identical with which of the following era?


One of the writers of the Dharmashashtra disapproved the practice of Sati declaring it as an act of suicide. Identify him from the given options:


Metronymics were borne by the later rulers of which among the following dynasties?


For which among the following offenses, Manu recommended higher punishment to Brahamans than the persons of other varnas?


“The king was the ruler of all except Brahamanas”. This was the view of __?


Which of the following Chola kings was the first to capture Maldives?


The minister of the Gahadvala King Govindachandra and author of Kalpadruma was __?


The inscriptions of Ashoka and the Brahmi script were deciphered by ___?


The earliest evidence of rice cultivation comes from which among the following valleys?


At which among the following sites of Indus Valley Civilization, the rows of distinctive fire altars with provision of ritual bathing have been found ?


In Pali texts, who among the following is referred to as Nigantha Nataputta?


Which among the following Gupta emperors called himself “Lichchhavi-dauhitra”?


Which among the following Kushana king adopted the epithet Dharma-thida?


In the revenue department of Mauryas, who among the following was in-charge of the collection of all revenues in the empire?


Which among conclusions has been derived from the debasement of the coins and gradual disappearance of gold coins during the post-Gupta period?


Which among the following is not among Ashtamahasthanas?


In which Buddhist council, Buddhism was divided into Sthaviravadins and Mahasanghikas?


During whose reign the Third Buddhist Council was organized?


At which age Gautam Buddha got Nirvana?


What was the name of Gautam Buddha’s only son ?


Who was the first Tirthankara in Jainism?


On the bank of which river, Mahavira attained Kaivalaya?


In which year, Vardhamana Mahavira was born?


Which of the following Jain Tirthankara have been mentioned in Rigveda?


According to some Jain traditions, who was son-in-law and first disciple of Tirthankara Mahavira?


The name of wife of Vardhaman Mahavira was __?


Mahavir Swami belonged to which clan?


At which place Mahavira attained Niravana?


Where was the first Jain council held?


Where was the second Jain council held?


Under whose leadership Shvetambara sect formed?


Under whose leadership, Jainism spread in South India?


Which ruler is credited for the spread of Jainism in Karnataka?


The grandson of Ashoka, who accepted Jainism was __?


What was the fifth tenet added by Tirthankara Mahavira to the four basic tenets of Jainism?


Tirthankara Parswanath’s idol is recognized by which symbol?


Which among the following define the similarities between Buddhism and Jainism?


Who among the following is the author of ‘Harshacharita’ ?


Who among the following was the founder of Pushyabhuti Dynasty ?


Who was the brother-in-law of Harshavardhan ?


Who assassinated Grahavarmana, the brother in law of Harshavardhan ?


Who wrote Kadambari?


What was the other name of Harshavardhana?


Which among the following play is/are written by Harshavardhan ?


Which of the following Chinese traveller came to India during the reign of Harshavardhana?


Who defeated Harsha Vardhana on the banks of river Narmada in 630 A.D.?


The Chalukya king, Pulakesin II defeated Harshavardhan on the banks of which river?


Which of the following Chinese emperors was contemporary of Harshavardhana?


During reign of Harsha, the Kannauj assembly was held to publicise the doctrines of which of the following sects?


Who among the following wrote ‘Nagananda’?


Who was the founder of Chalukya Dynasty ?


Who was the author of Aihole Inscription ?


Which of the following Pallava rulers invaded the Chalukya Kingdom and captured Badami ?


Which Chalukyan ruler set up it capital at Vengi ?


Who among the following Chalukyan king sent an ambassador to Persian king Khusrau II ?


What was the ruling period of Chalukyas of Badami ?


Who took the title of Vatapikonda ?


Who among the following Pallava ruler built the Shore Temple at Mahabalipuram?


Who among the following Pallava ruler built Vaikuntaperumal temple at Kanchi ?


Who among the following was the author of Kiratarjuniya?


Dashkumarcharitam was composed by whom?


Which among the following Pallava king wrote the famous burlesque ‘Mattavilasa Prahasana’ ?


Which among the following chalukyan king performed ‘Ashwamedha yajna’ ?


The Kadamba dynasty was founded by whom?


Who was the founder of Ganga dynasty?


The famous Konark Sun temple was built by whom?


Who was the author of Dashkumarcharitam and at whose court did he live?


By whom Pallava King Mahendravarman-I got defeated?


Which of the following inscriptions mentions the name of Kalidasa?


Who among the following built the Gomateshwara statue at Sravanabelagola ?


Which of the following inscriptions mentions the name of Kalidasa?


Which among the following Mudra is the gesture of Buddha as depicted in his first sermon?


Who among the following built the Gomateshwara statue at Sravanabelagola ?


Who among the following is known as ‘Mother of Indian Revolution’ ?


Ujjaini located in the Malwa region, came under which Mahajanapada?


Taxila was the capital of which ancient Mahajanpada ?


Which of the following cities was located at junction of Uttarapatha and Dakshinapatha?


Mathura, the famous city was the capital of which ancient Mahajanapada?


Which of the following was the capital of Northern Panchalas?


Ancient Indraprastha was capital of which of the following Mahajanapada?


Viratnagar, capital of Matsya mahajanpada located in which region ?


Which physician was sent by Bimbisara to treat Avanti King Pradyota?


What was the other name of Bimbisara?


Who was the last ruler of Shisunaga dynasty?


Which among the following rulers is often described as ‘the first empire builder of Indian History’?


Who was the founder of Nanda dynasty?


In which year, Alexander invaded India?


Which among the following dynasties were ruling over Magadha when Alexander invaded India?


In which year, Ashoka invaded Kalinga?


Who among the following is the author of ‘Indica’ ?


Who was the Syrian ambassador in the court of Bindusara?


In which rock edict Ashoka mentioned “Every Human is my child…”?


Which Ashokan inscription mentions five contemporary Hellenic Kings?


Which rock edict of Ashoka requests for religious tolerance among sects?


Which rock edict describes Asoka’s first Dhamma Yatra to Bodhgaya and Bodhi Tree?


Which rock edict gives information about Asoka’s conversion to Buddhism?


Which among the following is known as the earliest example of Panchayatana style of temple?


The Bhamala Stupa, a ruined Buddhist Stupa, is located in which one of the following countries?


At which among the following places, the Dharma-Chakra Jina Vihara was constructed by Gahadavala Queen Kumaradevi?


The important trade centres of ancient India on the trade route connecting Kalyana with Vengi was__ ?


Vidhushaka, a common character in Sanskrit drama is ___?


To which of the following ethnic hordes, Toramana belonged to ?


The caves and rock-cut temples at Ellora are __:


The earliest evidence of Banking transactions in India comes from __:


Who among the following is known as father of Indian Pre-History?


Which among the following was the main occupation of Palaeolithic (Old stone) people?


Which of the following Indus Valley Sites was discovered by Rakhal Das Bannerjee?


Which one of the following archaeologists discovered the Harappa site of the Indus Valley civilisation?


Which among the following Indus Valley site is located in Montogomery (Punjab) in Pakistan?


In the Indus Valley Civilization, Great Bath was found at which place?


The script of Indus Valley people was __?


At which of the following sites, all the Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic sites have been found in sequence?


The Gufkral chalcolithic site is located in which state?


The oldest evidence in human history for the drilling of teeth in a living person was found in which of the following cultures?


The earliest evidence of domestication of animals has been provided by Adamagarh. In which of the following states is located Adamgarh ?


What is the number of prehistoric rock shelters in Bhimbetka?


Which rock edict of Ashoka mentions the purpose of the rock edicts?


Which rock edict of Ashoka appeals for tolerance among sects?


Which Ashokan pillar edict mentions the Dhamma Mahamattas?


Which Ashokan pillar edict provides a list of animals and birds killing of which was prohibited?


According to Sri Lankan chronicle Mahavamasa, Mauryan Emperor Ashoka converted to Buddhism by__?


Which among the following Ashokan inscriptions mentions the name Ashoka?


Which Greek ruler sent Megathenes in the court of Chandragupta Maurya?


Which among the following major rock edicts of Ashoka are in Kharosthi script?


Among all the pillar edicts of Ashoka, which one is the longest one?


Among all the major rock edicts of Ashoka, which one is the longest?


Which among the following is the bilingual inscription?


Before ascending the Maurya throne, Ashoka was the viceroy of which of the following?


Which Ashokan inscription elaborates the policy of Dhamma?


Which Ashokan inscription prohibits animal slaughter?


Which of the following officers were mandated by Asoka to spread the Dhamma Policy of Asoka?


The Kalinga war was fought in which year of Ashoka reign?


Which Greek ruler sent Dionysuis as an ambassador in the court of Patliputra?


The Ashoka’s Bairut inscription was brought to Allahabad by__?


In the Mauryan empire, the post Devatadhyaksha is related to –


In the Mauryan period, the duties of Mudradhyaksha were concerned with –


As per the officials mentioned in the Arthashastra, the duties related to Crown lands was performed by whom ?


In the Maurya empire, who looked after Markets and check wrong practices?


In the Maurya empire, who was the superintendent of Ports ?


In the Maurya empire, what was the name of department of the Chief of the Mines ?


Who was Paura during the Maurya empire?


In which inscription, the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka refers himself as Piyadassi laja Magadhe (Piyadassi, King of Magadha)?


Mauryan Emperor Ashoka is referred as Ashokavardhana in which of the following?


In context of Mauryan administration, who was regarded as the ‘Chief treasury officer’?


In context of Mauryan administration, who was the chief supervisor of the collection of revenue from the whole kingdom?


Who was the author of the Jivaka Chintamani?


Which of the following ancient Tamil Kingdoms came to be known from Sangam Literature?


Who was the author of the book ‘Manimekalai’?


Who was the author of the book ‘Silappadikarma’?


Which of the following book is the sequel of an epic ‘Silappadikarma’?


In Sangam age, the book ‘Bharatam’ was written by__?


Where was the first Tamil Sangam held__?


Tolkāppiyam belongs to which tamil Sangam?


Who was the author of the book ‘Tirukkural’?


Which of the following book is considered as the ‘Odyssus of Tamil poetry’?


Who built a temple of Augustus at Muzris?


Which of the following was the capital of Chola dynasty?


The Pattini cult was established by which Sangam ruler?


Which among the following was the capital of Chera Kingdom?


Which among the following Harappan site has been divided into three parts?


At which Indus Valley Site, the beared man in steatite image has been found?


Which among the following places in India where all the Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic sites are found?


Which among the following is considered to be the oldest Veda?


Which among the following are important functionaries of Early Vedic period?


Purusha sukta is a part of which among the following vedas?


The hymns of regveda were composed by ?


Which of the following types of Vedic priests was most responsible for making correct arrangements for vedic sacrificial rites?


Which of the following are ritualistic teachings attached to the hymns of the Vedas?


The IX mandala of the Rigveda samhita is dedicated to?


As per the Dharmashastras, what does ‘Anuloma Vivah’ mean ?


Who was the founder of Yoga philosophy?


Which of the following is the oldest Smriti?


Which of the following Vedanga is related to metrics?


The ‘Battlle of Ten kings’ is depicted in which mandal of Rig Veda?


Which of the Brahamana says’wife is half her husband’?


Which of the following Upanishads gives clear reference of four Ashrams of individual’s life?


In which of the following Vedas, the priest is Brahma?


In which Mandal of Rigveda ‘Gayatri Mantra is mentioned?


In the Later Vedic period, who was the god of Shudras?


Which of the following is the equivalent term used for Raja in early vedic era?


According to the later Vedic Era beliefs, which of the following Gods were elected democratically?


Which of the following subjects are dealt in by Kalpa Sutras?


Which among the following age marks a very distinct growth in population of Human beings compared to other ages?


In which state of India, the first Paleolithic site was discovered?


Consider the following statements: 1. Both Ramapithecus & Shivapithecus have been considered the earliest ancestors of modern human beings 2. While Ramapithecus is a male fossil, Shivapithecus is a female fossil Which among the above statements is / are correct ?


Consider the following statements: 1. First human like appearance was in Australopithecus 2. First known Homo species is Homo heidelbergensis Which among the above statements is / are correct ?


At which of the following sites, largest variety of food grains in the Chalcolithic age has been found?


At which among the following sites the where first evidence of cultivation of cotton has been found?


Which among the following is the correct location of an ancient site Deh Morsai Ghundai?


Begram in Afghanistan was a capital of which of the following kings?


World’s first oil paintings have been found in which of the following countries?


In which of the following Russo-Persian wars Russia was defeated?


What was the capital of Surasena Mahajanpada?


“Revere all the Buddhas, revere the dharma, revere the sangha” Which among the following quotes this _________?


“_____________is believed to mark the main site of Hastinapur, which was capital of Kauravas and Pandava The imperial gazetteer of India quotes about which of the following places?


Pushkalavati was capital of which of the following acient Kingdoms?


The place Dharanikota in South India is related to which ancient dynasty?


Which of the following Rigvedic deities represented Storm?


Who among the following was propounder of the Madhyamika Philosophy?


Pushkalavati was capital of which of the following acient Kingdoms?


The place Dharanikota in South India is related to which ancient dynasty?


Which among the following was the capital of Pandyas Kingdom?


In context of Sangam Age, which among the following was the ruling class in society?


Which among the following was the royal emblem of Chola Kingdom?


Which among the following was the royal emblem of Chera Kingdom?


Which among the following was the royal emblem of Pandya Kingdom?


Uraiyur was an ancient Chola city famous for__?


In the Sangam age, ‘Karai’ the revenue term is related with__?


Variyar, the Revenue term was used for which action?


The word ‘Sangam’ of Sangam Age was closely associated with which of the following?


Who is known as the Father of Tamil literature?


Who was the chairman of Third Tamil Sangam?


Who was the earliest known Chola King who conquered Sri Lanka and ruled it ?


The greatest Chera King remembered for building a temple of ‘Kannagi’ the Goddess of Chastity?


Who was the founder of Sunga Dynasty?


Who was contemporary of Pushyamitra Sunga?


Heliodorus’ a Greek ambassador of the Indo-Greek king was sent to the court of which ruler?


Heliodorus was the Greek ambassador of which of the following Indo-Greek kings?


Pushyamitra, the founder ruler of Sunga Dynasty performed how many Ashvamedha sacrifices?


Who wrote Mahabhashya?


Who wrote Malvikagnimitra?


Who was the first Satvahana King?


Which Saka king defeated by Gautamiputra Satakarni?


The achievements of which ruler was recorded in Nasik Inscription?


Who was the mother of Gautamiputra Satkarni?


Who composed Nasik Inscription in which achievements of Gautamiputra Satkarni were recorded?


Who was the court physician during the reign of Kanishka-I?


Who composed Buddhacharita?


Who overthrew Saka rulers from India?


Which of the following passes was used by Sakas to come to India?


Which Saka ruler was responsible for important irrigation works in Saurashtra?


The Sakas introduced Satrap system of government along with whom?


Which among the following were the scholars in the Court of Kanishka-I?


Who was the founder of Gupta Dynasty?


Which Gupta emperor was an expert Veena player?


Who was the court poet of Samudragupta?


Who among the following of Gupta dynasty adopted the title ‘Kaviraja’?


Who among the following rulers of Gupta dynasty started Gupta Era?


Which among the following was the last ruler of Gupta empire?


Which of the following was capital of Guptas?


Which the following rulers is known as the ‘Napoleon of India’?


The achievements of Samudragupta are mentioned in which inscription?


Who assumed the title of ‘Ksitipasatapatih’ (Lord of hundred Kings)?


Which among the following is / are works of Kalidasa? 1. Ritusamhara 2. Meghaduta 3. Malavikagnimitra 4. Kumarashambhava 5. Abhijnana Sakuntalam Choose the correct option from the codes given below:


Which among the following era is identical with Gupta era?


Whom did Skandgupta appointed as the the Provincial Governor of Saurashtra?


Who among the following was the ruler of Kanchi during the period of Samudragupta ?


Who composed Prayag-Prashasti inscription during the Gupta period?


Under whose reign the Chinese traveller Fa-hein came to India?


Who among the following foreign traveller came to India during the reign of Chandragupta II?


The Nalanda University was founded by which Gupta ruler?


The Sudarshan lake repaired second time under the reign of__?


The Gupta Emperor Chandragupta II was succeeded by whom?


Who granted permission to Buddhist king of Ceylon Meghavarman to build a monastic at Bodh Gaya?


Who defeated the Saka king Rudrasimha III and annexed his kingdom?


The gold coins issued during the reign of Chandragupta Vikramaditya were known as__?


Which of the following is / are the 9 gems of Chandragupta Vikramaditya?


Which of the following inscriptions mentions Chandragupta Vikramaditya’s authority over North-Western India?


Who among the following Gupta emperor made Ujjain as his second capital?


Which of the following are the famous temples of Gupta empire?


In context of Gupta empire during whose time period was the Iron Pillar in Delhi erected?


What was the name of the Lichchavi princess who Chandragupta-I married?


Who was the father of King Harshavardhan ?


Which of the following is the period assigned to reign of Harshavardhana?


The ruler of Kushan dynasty, Kanishka was the follower of__?


Kushans belongs to which tribe?


Who was the founder of Kushana Empire in India?


Who was the first ruler of Kushana dynasty to issue gold coins in India?


Who among the following introduced Shaka era?


Which of the following was main capital of Kushana king Kanishka-I?


Who among the following succeeded Samudragupta as the next ruler of Gupta Dynasty ?


Which among the following kings was also known as Mamallan (great wrestler)?


Buddhacharita, the epic biography of Gautama Buddha in Sanskrit was written by__:


The last ruler of the Mauryan Dynasty, who was assassinated by Pushyamitra Sunga, his commander-in-chief was __ ?


Who among the following Kushan Emperors was the first to introduce the gold coinage in India?


Rajatarangini, a book that generally recorded the heritage of Kashmir in the 12th Century, was written by__:


Which among the following can best define the Neolithic Revolution ?


Which of the following Harappan towns is divided into three parts ?


Which of the following is the most common motif of the Indus Seals ?


Robert Bruce Foote, who discovered first Palaeolithic tools in India, was originally ___?


Which among the following places has given the earliest evidence of agriculture in Indian Subcontinent?


Which of the following was not a diety of the Harappans?


With which among the following Vedas, the Shatapatha Brahmana is related to___?


King Ashvapati of the Upanishadic Age was the ruler of which among the following Kingdoms?


That the homeland of the Aryans was Arctic Region, was propounded by ___?


Who was the priest of the Bharatas in the battle of Ten Kings ?


What metals were known to the people of Indus valley civilisation?


At which Indus Valley Site, the remains of Horse bones have been found?


In the Indus Valley Civilization, the style of script is:


What is the meaning of term “Mohenjodaro” in Indus Valley Civilization?


In the Indus Valley civilization the Great Granary was found in which among the following sites?


In the Indus Valley Civilisation(IVC) which among the following site has a unique water harnessing system and its storm water drainage system?


Who is often called as Hindu Luther of Northern India ?


Father of renaissance of Western India was__?


Who was the founder leader of ‘Muslim Faqirs’ ?


Who was the first Indo-Greek king, who became Buddhist?


Who was the first Indo-Greek king, who became Buddhist?


Which of the following are two works of Kalidasa?


Bring out the only incorrect statement:


Devichandraguptam, a play by Vishakhadatta, tells story about which of the following rulers?


Who wrote the book Pancha Siddhantika?


Which of the following Indus Valley sites is not a present in India?


Which Indian city was also known as Kusumapura during the ancient period?


Acharanga Sutra is associated with which of the following religions?


Third Buddhist Council was held at which of the following places?


The famous book Sutrakritanga provides detailed information about the life of:


Which of the following plays of Kalidasa tells the story of mortal King Pururavas and celestial nymph Urvashi who fall in love?


Mundaka Upanishad, the Mandukya Upanishad and the Prashna Upanishad are associated with which of the following Vedas?


Tat Tvam Asi, a sanskrit phrase, originally occurs in which of the following Upanishads?


Jorwe culture, a Chalcolithic culture, was first discovered in which of the following states of India?


At which of the following Harappan sites, terracotta female figures were discovered?


The Neolithic sites Kuchai and Golbai Sasan are located in which Indian state?


The Nitisara of Kamandaka, also known as the Kamandakiya-Nitisara, was composed during the period of:


Which of the following regions was called “Gedrosia” during times of Alexander, the great?


Rummindei Pillar Inscription which talks about taxation in Maurya era has been found at which of the following places?


Which of the following rulers were contemporary of Buddha?


The Greek Ambassador Deimachus of Plataea had visited the court of which of the following rulers of Magadha?


Who among the following is writer of the ‘Kalpasutra’?


Buddhism from India was introduced to which current region by Kasyapa Matanga?


Which of the following was denoted by the term “Kahapana” or “Karshapan” during ancient India?


What was Arikamedu during ancient India?


The ancient port-site of Godavaya is located in which country?


Who among the following legendary kings was also known as “Sarvadamana” in his childhood?


Who among the following translated “Gita Govinda” in 1792?


Which among the following dynasty was identified only on the basis of Coins?


Who among the following were known as Tocharians?


Two schools, viz. Mathura School of Art and Gandhara School of Art flourished in which among the following era?


Who among the following defeated Harshavardhana on the banks of river Narmada?


In which of the following cities of India is located world’s first complete granite temple?


Which of the following rivers was known as “Drishdvati” in Vedic Era?


Nakoda at Rajasthan, which is famous for miracles at Nakodaji, is a temple of which among the following ?


The temples at Belur, Halebidu and Somnathpura are supreme examples of which among the following types of Temple Architecture?


Which among the following Pala rulers is known to have founded the Vikramshila Vihara?


Hieun Tsang, had visited the court of which among the following rulers?


Which among the following is the correct meaning of a word “Manigramam” used in medieval India?


The term “Vitasta” in Rig Veda refers to which among the following rivers?


The deity in most of the Chola temples was__?


In which among the following metals, largest number of coins were issued in Gupta Era?


Sarnath, is related to which among the following events in the life of Buddha?


Kushinara or Kushinagar, where Lord Buddha attained parinirvana was located in which among the following provinces of ancient India?


Agnimitra, who is the hero of Kalidasa’s ‘Malvikagnimitram’ was a king of which of the following dynasties?


Who has written “Kalpsutra”?


In which period, “Arthshastra” was written ?


Yājñavalkya Smṛti was written in which among the following era?


Works of 11th century Sanskrit poet Jayadeva have become the basis of which among the following dance forms of India?


Which king of Ancient India has been given the title” Indian Nepoleon” by VA Smith?


Which among the following site in Bihar is a Buddhist as well as Janism pilgrim place?


Consider the following statements about Lion Capital of Asoka which has been now adopted as India’s emblem:
1.It was erected around 250 BC at Sarnath
2. It was engraved with “Satyamev Jayate”
3. Its abacus is engraved with 4 animals viz. lion, elephant, deer and bull
Which among the above statements is/ are correct?


History of which among the following parts of India has been described in the “Rajtarangini” of Kalhana?


During the reign of which among the following Kings, the Gandhar Style of Art developed?


Every five years, Harshavardhana used to donate all his possessions at an assembly at which among the following places?


The Excavated Buddhist Site, Lalitgiri , which was notified as Centrally Protected in the year 1937, is located in which among the following states of India?


Which among the following is NOT a Vedanga?


At which among the following places, Gautam Buddha preached his last sermon?


Which among the following sites in Haryana, is the place as per legends where Lord Krishna delivered the sermon of Bhagavad Gita?


Which century Gautama Buddha was born in?


Where is Largest Monastery in India?


Who among the following was the first Tirthankar of Jainism?


Which among the following kings assassinated Brihadrath, the last Maurya King?


Apart from Madurai, which among the following was also a capital of Pandyas?


Ashoka called the third buddhist council at which of the following places?


Which among the following site has yielded the cultural remains from Neolithic to Harappan era?


“Mahamaya”, the mother of Guautam Buddha belonged to which among the following dynasties?


Which among the following text of Buddhism speaks about the sixteen Mahajanapadas?


Which of the following Pala Kings founded the Vikramshila University?


Which dynasty Asoka the Great was emperor of ?


The Brihadishwara Temple (Rajarajeswaram) is situated at?


Which among the following mahajanpada was situated on the bank of river Godavari?


At which among the following places, the famous Bull Seal of Indus Valley Civilization was found?


The philosophy of “Nyaya Darshan” has been ascribed to who among following?


A civilization (mature period 2600–1900 BCE) which was centred mostly in the western part of the Indian Subcontinent?


Which among the rulers of Magadh founded the city of Patliputra (Patna) on the bank of river Ganges?


With which among the following branches of Mathematics, Sulva Sutras are related to__?


Simuka was an Indian king and the founder of which among the following dynasty?


Which among the following was the state emblem of Pandyas?


Bhandi was a chief secretary of which among the following Indian Kings?


Which among the following ruler is known for Junagarh Rock Inscription?


After the victory on which among the following, the Vikrama Samvat was founded by the Tuar Rajput emperor Vikramaditya of Ujjain ?


The construction of the Delhi Iron Pillar, now located at the Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque in New Delhi was constructed in which period?


The name of which among the following king of the Hellenistic Seleucid Kingdom has been inscribed on the edicts of Asoka?


Dhauli Hills , which have major Edicts of Ashoka engraved on a mass of rock, by the side of the road leading to the summit of the hills are located in which among the following states of India?


Indus Valley site at Surkotada is located in which among the following states ?


In which state of India is located the ancient trading depot of Bharukaccha?


Which among the following was capital of Mitrakas?


Which among the following sites near Pondicherry gives best support to the view on an ancient trade between Rome and the ancient Tamil country of India?


As per Vedic rituals, which among the following is the divine messenger who receives the prayers and conveys them to the heavenly spheres?


As per the Hindu Philosophy, what is the number of articles under the restraints and practices (Yamas and Niyamas)?


Who among the following was the first famous and powerful king of Sen dynasty?


The silver coins of which among the following kings carried portraits and bilingual legends, which were inspired by the Kshatrapa types?


Hieroglyphic Writing is a part of which ancient civilization?


Kotada timba, which contains ruins of an ancient Harappan city is located in which among the following states?


Yavanpriya in ancient Hindu Texts refers to which among the following?


Who among the following is the author of Dharmasastra?


In ancient India, the term Nishka was related to which among the following?


Vedic mythology refers to an ancient settlement called Pushkalavati after Pushkal, who was the son of King Bharata in the epic Ramayan. What is the modern location of Pushkalavati?


Which among the following dynasties is known to have given the largest grant of villages to the temples and Brahamans?


Rigveda was written during which among the following ages?


For the first time in Indian History, the description of the State Administration was found for which among the following periods?


Who among the following is ascribed for the work Mudrarakshaha?


Which among the following kings have been linked to the Sudaman Caves ?


What was the function of Samharta in Mauryan Administration?


“All Indians are Free and not even one of them is a slave”. Who among the following has observed the above about the Mauryan Empire?


Pushyamitra Shunga, who was originally a Senapati of the Mauryan Empire and assassinated the last Mauryan Emperor Brihadrath in 185 BC was a ____?


There is only one edict, in which Ashoka refers himself as King of Magadha (Laja Magadhe). Identify the edict from the following:


At which among the following places, Chandragupta Maurya spent his last days ?


Ceylon became a stronghold of which among the following branches of Buddhism?


Who among the following was King of Magadha at the time of Mahaparinirvana of Gautam Buddha?


Ashvaghosha, who has written the marvelous work “Buddhacharita” was a court poet of which among the following kings?


Who among the following kings was a contemporary of both Mahavira and Buddha ?


What is the correct Chronological Order of Nandas, Sungas, Mauryas & Hayankas dynasties of Ancient India?


Tanjore , Anhilwada, Dhara & Kanauj were the capitals of respectively which among the following dynasties?


The first Indian Mathematician who treated Mathematics as a different discipline?


The word ” Vihara” in Buddhism means____________?


Which among the following Buddhist Canon is related to dealing with rules for monks and nuns ?


Savatthi was capital of which among the 16 Mahajanpadas?


During the period of Harshavardhana the fields were watered by the pots which were called Ghati yantra. The writing of which among the following authors records this?


At which among the following places, Harshavardhana established a large Buddhist monastery?


The Pasupati seal, discovered at Mohenjodaro archaeological site by Sir John Marshall, which has given rise to the Proto-Shiva theory, has the following characteristics:

  1. Yogic Posture in possibly Hath Yoga
  2. Surrounded by animals
  3. Sitting on a lotus

Choose the correct option:


Consider the following statements:

  1. The rebels in the revolt 1857 had no clear perspective
  2. Many leaders of the revolt were defeated because of betrayal

Which among the above statements is / are correct?


In which year, collector in each District of Bengal was made responsible for settling the revenue and collecting it?


In context with the “Village Headman” of Gupta Era in ancient India, consider the following statements:

  1. The Village headman used to manage the village daily affairs with the consent of the King
  2. No land transaction could be effected without the consent of the Village headman

Which among the above statements is / are correct?


Consider the following statements:

  1. The abundant female images suggest that goddesses played a central role in the Indus Valley civilization
  2. Female God Figurine were abundant but male rare in the Chalcolithic communities

Which among the above statements is / are correct?


Which among the following was / were the reasons behind the Rise of Magadha as imperial power in Ancient India:

  1. Strategic position surrounded by five hills and aggressive policy of rulers
  2. Rich and fertile zone with good communication channels
  3. Association with Buddhism and Gautam Buddha

Choose the correct option:


Which among the following are directly linked to Vedic Literature:

  1. Dharamasutra
  2. Acaranga Sutra
  3. Avatamsaka Sutra

Choose the correct option:


 Bhimbethka in Madhya Pradesh is an ancient Indian site where art prehistoric age are found preserved in rock-shelters. These arts belong to:

  1. Paleolithic age
  2. Mesolithic age
  3. Chalcolithic age

Choose the correct option:


“Gayatri Mantra” has been mentioned in which of the Vedas?


Which among the following veda has been described as “Braham Veda”?


Which among the following system in the Vedic Age has provided for a marriage of a childless widow with the brother of blood relation of her deceased husband for the sake of progeny ?


Earth, Water, Fire, Air, and Ether (sky) these are the panchtatvas (5 elements) and when they combine they give rise to new objects. This is a principle of which of the Vedic philosophies?


Which among the following Mahajanpada was located on the junction of two famous ancient Indian Trade routes – Uttarpatha and Dakshinpatha?


In which of the following modern State, most of the 24 Tirthankar of Jainism attained nirvana?


Which among the following is true about Buddha?


King Prasenjita was a contemporary and friend of Lord Buddha. He was a king of ________?


In which of the following works is mentioned the conspiracy hatched by Pushyamitra Shunga to eliminate the last Mauryan King Brihadratha?


Which among the following was main item of revenue during Maurya Period?


The railings of the Sanchi Stupa were made during ?


Kharvela who constructed caves in the Udaigri for jain Monks was a ruler belonging to which dynasty ?


Milinda-Panho is a pali text which record discussion between Milinda and Nagsena. Milinda was a ________?


The Royal seal of Guptas bore the emblem of _________?


Devichandraguptam was a work of _________?


Which among the following sites gives an evidence of maritime trade in harappan era?


Fa-Hien who came to visit India during Gupta Period had the main motive of ___________?


Which among the following is best example of Vijaynagar Art?


There is no evidence of cultivation of which among the Barley , Sugarcane, Rice & Field pea at any of the sites of the Indus valley ?


Evidence of a game which was very similar to chess was found at which of the following sites at Indus valley civilization?


Bhogagamas were villages given by the Kings to his favorites in Pre Maurya Period particularly Purohitas (Priests) or some Setties (Big Merchants) for the purpose of __________?


Gandhar art is a combination of ____________ ?


What was used normally in the construction of Roya Houses during Mauryan period?


Battle of the Hydaspes was fought between Alexander and King Porus in 326 BC. Hydapses means which river________?


Algebra was invented by which of the following Ancient Indian Mathematicians?


”Kaviraja” or King of poets was a title of _________?


Which among the following comprises ” Code of Laws” ?


Who among the following king is related to Repair of Sudarsana Lake?


Who among the following is propounded of Madhyamika Philosophy ?


Sankara is related to which of the following?


The ancient places of Badami, Dwarasamudra and Warangal are related to which of the following dynasties?


Konark Temples are related to which of the following dynasties ?


Chandella Kings are related to which of the following temples?


Mahabalipuram was a port city of which of the following dynasties?


Narasimhavarman-I was one of the most famous Tamil kings of the Pallava dynasty who ruled South India and founded Mahabalipuram. His another name is _______?


‘Saptanga’ Theory which deals with the 7 limbs (sapta anga) of ancient political structure was propounded by ?


In which period of the Indian History , the number zero as well as decimal system were invented?


In ancient India, which dynasty issued the largest number of Gold coins?


Aihole is called the cradle of Indian temple architecture. Which among the following dynasty is related to the construction of magnificent temples in Aihole?


Who among the following has been described by Banabhatta as “a lion to the Huna deer’?


Which among the following place is related to coronation of Chola Kings?


The capital of Chola empire was Thanjavur (Tanjore), where Brihadeshwara temple was constructed by ___________?


Who among the following is said to have crossed the Vindhyas in the later Vedic age and aryanise the south ?


Which among the following is the most important work of Tamil Literature of Sangam Period (sometimes also referred as Bible of the Tamil land)?


Who among the following is compiled the work ” Ravanavadham”?


Which among the following have been proved to be the best source of info regarding ancient India?


which among the following Brahman provides details of cultivation process?


Which among the following was the most important grain grown in the vedic Age?


In Vedic age which among the following grains was referred as vrihi?


” Karmara” in the vedic age was referred to the people occupied with the profession of ______?


Brahma Sutra of Badrayan are the logical point of starting of which of the following philosophies?


Gopatha Brahman is a part of which of the following Vedas?


Which among the following philosophy deals with Logic?


Which river was called Vipasa in Vedic India?


Four Noble Truths are one of the most fundamental truths of which of the following religion?


Kena Upanishad is of which of the following Vedas?


Shatapatha Brahmana belongs to which of the following Vedas?


After death of Bindusara, who among the following is considered to help Asoka to capture the throne?


Which Buddhist council was held during the reign of Kanishka?


Sarnath is associated with which aspect of Buddha’s life?


Which of the following places is known for painted rock shelters belonging to Paleolithic and Mesolithic ages ?


The bilingual Inscriptions of Asoka involved which of the following two languages?


The Jivaka which is mentioned in Buddhist literature was one among the following ?


What is the meaning of kalibangan in Rajasthan which shows the prehistoric and pre-Mauryan character of Indus Valley Civilization ?


Which was the second capital of Kanishka?


Kumārasambhava is an Sanskrit epic poem written by Kalidasa. It literally means birth of Kumara. Who was Kumara in this epic?


Kumarila Bhatta , who was a Hindu philosopher and scholar from Prayag, was an acharya of which of the following ?


Queen Trishala was the name of mother of ________ ?


In which of the following age human shifted from food gathering stage to food producing stage ?


Charak was a contemporary of which of the following Kings?


The meaning of Mohenjo dero is ‘mound of the dead’. The same meaning is expressed by which of the following names ?


Which of the following authorities lays down a priority of inheritance which places the wife, followed by daughters immediately after sons?


Madurai was a capital of which of the following dynasties?


Who has written the biography of harshavardhana?


The following were the immediate successors of imperial Mauryas?


During the reign of Guptas in North India , who were their contemporaries in South India ?


Navanitakam is a work on which of the following ?


Giak & Kiari are located in which of the following ?


Which of the following place of Andhra Pradesh is well known for a Buddhist Stupa?


The Taxila or Takshashila was located between following two rivers ?


What was the correct rank of ” Baladhikarana” in the Gupta Age?


What were the names of Asoka’s mother, wife & daughter?


Nude male torso has been found at which of the following place?


Mehrgarh in the Indus valley civilization is known for which of the following?


Katyotsarga pose is a gesture of which of the following


Which of the following group represents right combination of Triratnas of Jainism?


Who among the following was last satavahana ruler ?


The three sangams were organized under the chairmanship of which of the following?


Nigashtha, Natputra, Nirgranth & Saatputra are various names of which of the following?


In which of the following the philosophical and spiritual thoughts are contained?


During the reign of which of the following some Yavans’ or Greeks were converted to the Vaishnava Cult?


The earliest epigraphic evidence for the existence of the Bhagavata cult is found in Madhya Pradesh which is the Garuda pillar inscription of Besnagar. It was erected by whom?


Who among the following is considered to organize a confederacy of 10 tribes or Kings against Sudas?


Which among the following is incorrect regarding Kushanas?


Meander who was an Indo Greek king accepted which of the following religion ?


Which among the following are correct about Chola King Rajendra Chola1?


which among the following sentence is incorrect about Rajadhiraja Chola I?


Which among the following is incorrect about Devdasis?


The regions where the Aryans settled in India was called Saptasindhu , which was pronounced as haptahindu as well. What was the other term used for this area?


Which among the following is Incorrect regarding the early Vedic religion?


The famous Gayatri mantra is addressed to which of the following vedic goddess?


Who among the following was the most important divinity during the early Vedic era?


In which of the following marriages in Vedic era, a girl was given by her father to the sacrificial priest in as a part of fee or Dakshina?


Gandhar Kingdom of Later vedic phase was mostly located at which of the following places?


Which among the following is true?


Which school of art is also called as mature School ?


What was the meaning of Visthi in the Gupta Era?


Who was the creator of Ravanabadha?


Amarsimha whose work Amarkosha is related to which of the following ?


Which among the following is not correctly Matched?


Which among the following is Not correctly matched?


Which among the following is Not Correctly matched?


Who among the following is seemed to have known the importance of zero?


Which among the following is NOT correct ?


Which among the following is Not Correctly matched? (Vedas & Brahman)


Which among the following is not Correctly matched?


Who among the following assumed the title of ” Mahendraditya”?


Which among the following has been used in the sculptures of Mathura school of Art?


What was the job of Rupadarshaka in Mauryan Era as per Arthashashtra of Kautilya?


Which among the following is related to history of Kashmir?


Which of the following was a common way of Chola kings Raj raja-1 and Rajendra 1 to commemorate their victories?


Which of the following was an Indian sage cum Guru and is said to have transmitted Tantric Buddhism to Bhutan and Tibet in the 8th century?


“The greatest law giver ” of ancient India was who among the following?


The ancient city of Raj Griha which is modern Rajgir near Patna was built by which of the following kings?


Who among the following is famous for saving the empire from the Huna tribe, which had overran Asia and Europe.


Mudra Rakshas is a work of Vishakhadutta. This work was depicted which of the following?


Nalanda University was founded by which of the following ?


Bagh caves near Gwalior represent the paintings of which of the following era?


Saka Year is how many years behind the Christian Era?


Partha was the name of which of the following character in Mahabharta?


Which among the following pairs is NOT correctly matched? (Traveler – During reign of King)


Which of the following pala ruler founded the University of Vikramsila?


Who was the founder of the Pala Dynasty of Bengal?


Which of the following was used in house making in Indus Valley Civilization?


Which among the following is not correctly matched? (Maurya Kings and contemporary Travelers/ Ambassadors )


Kavi Vatsal was a title assumed by a king belonging to which of the following dynasties?


At which of the following harappan sites, an Inkpot has been discovered


We have read that the writing in the Indus valley Civilization was Boustrophedon. This means that ______?


Which of the following two towns of Indus valley Civilization were located on the bank of Ghagghar River?


Which of the following two towns of Indus valley Civilization were located on the bank of Ghagghar River?


Which among the following was referred to as Buvan Chakshu in Early vedic era?


Painted Grey ware” was used in which of the following era?


Which among the following is a ritualistic Veda?


Who among the following belonged to Sakya clan of Kshatriyas?


In which of the following Buddhist Councils , the compilation of Dhamma Pitaka and Sutta Pitaka took Place?


Which of the following religious text is written in the form of questions and answers?


Which pillar edict of Asoka is longest of all pillars?


The 13th Rock edict of Asoka which is longest among all the rock edicts describes which of the following?


Who among the following erected a monastery stupa at Peshawar ?


Who among the following granted permission to Buddhist King of Ceylon Meghavarman to build a Monastery at Bodh Gaya?


Which of the following dynasties was founded by Mayur Sarman?


Hemis festival is dedicated to Lord Padmasambhava (Gur Rimpoche) venerated as the representative reincarnate of Buddha. In which part of India it is held every year?


During whose reign among the following the Mahayan emerged ?


Fourth Buddhist Council was held at?


Which among the following kingdom in South India was known for an excellent Navy ?


During whose reign Gandhāran style of art flourished?


Which among the following statements is incorrect regarding Ajanta Caves?


Ayodhya temples are located on the banks of which of the following rivers ?


Twang is an area in Arunanchal Pradesh in India, recently in news papers. It is world famous for which of the following?


“Manas Khand” which is mentioned in various ancient hindu scriptures belongs to /refers to which of the following modern states of India?


Which of the following state is the home to Bharat Dynasty?


Preservation of the genealogies of the gods, Risis and famous kings, is the duty of the Sutas or bards. Which among the following says this ?


Which among the following Chera King is famous for the legends surrounding Kannagi ( he built a temple dedicated to Kannagi) and is also known as ” Red Cherra” ?


Extensive burning of the forest marks which of the following era?


Which of the following era / communities represent Jorwe culture?


Which among the following is the theme of “Katyayana Srauta sutra”?


Who among the following are not mentioned in Asokan Inscriptions?


Which among the following sites of Indus Valley era is considered as the oldest “Ploughed field” in the world?


Allahabad Pillar Inscription gives a detailed account of the reign of which of the following?


Which among the following sites of Indus Valley Civilization marks the “Absence of Mother goddess figurines” ?


On which of the following systems of Hindu Philosophy, Shankaracharya wrote commentary in 9th century AD?


Which among the following Kavya of Sanskrit, deal with court intrigues & access to power of Chandragupta Maurya?


Four mattas in the four corners of India were founded by ___?


Which among the following is not a correct pair?


Who among the following assumed the titles of sakayavanpallavanidusana (destroyer of saka, yavana and pallavas) and Trisamudrapittoyvahana (one whose horses had drunk waters from 3 oceans) ?


Who among the following wrote Priyadarshika?


Which among the following is not correctly matched ?


Which among the following dynasty is credited for establishing peace in the country after the decline of maurya Empire?


Which among the following is also called encyclopedia of Buddhism?


The age of Guptas in the Indian History is described as Golden Age of Indian History. Which among the following options is not a valid reason behind this?


The people from which of the following ancient places were called as Vrishnis?


Who among the following professed Suddhadvaita philosophy?


Which among the following correctly explains Bhikkhunī Pātimokkha of Buddhism?


Bring out the only wrong statement:


What was the most prominent reason of arrival of Indo-Aryans from central Asia , possibly from the south of the Urals and East of Caspian Sea?


Who among the following Buddhist Philosophers persuaded the Indo Greek King Meander to Accept Buddhism?


During end of which of the following period the urban centers of Gangetic planes declined ?


The name of the state Bihar comes from an old name which denotes which of the following?


Which among the following work was originally called as Jaya Kavya?


Which among the following Buddhist work is written in Sanskrit?


Which among the following is not a Jain Text ?


What is the number of Richas in Rigveda?


Vajasneya belongs to the following Veda?


Bhagwati Sutra gives the valuable information about the life of which of the following?


In Rigveda the rivers Ganga & Yamuna are mentioned as below


Which among the following Brahaman gave an account of agricultural operations for a season?


Nakulin or Lakulin is considered to be a founder of which of the following sects?


Who among the following rulers conquered the Anga Mahajanpada and merged it with Magadha ?


Which among the following was the most famous learning centre during maurya Period?


Who among the following was commander in chief of Brihadratha?


What was the name of the judges and judicial officers in Satvahana Dynasty?


How the hero of Malvikagnimitra of Kalidasa was related to Pushyamitra Sunga?


Which of the following Chinise rulers built the great wall of China?


In which was the following texts of Kalidasa , Sati system has been mentioned?


At which of the following places Aphsad inscription has been found which gives account of later Guptas?


Who among the following has been mentioned as Maharajadhiraja and a Lion to the Huna Deer by Banabhatta?


What is the meaning of a Prasati ?


Which of the following events happened in AD Era?


Which Jain Tirthankar is considered as female by Shwetambar sect of the Jainism?


Which of the following works credits ‘Pushyabhuti’ as the founder of the Vardhana dynasty ?


Who among the following erected Gangaikonda Cholapuram ?


Bring out the Incorrect statement:


Gathas are most sacred of the texts of which of the following faiths?


In context with Vedic culture, in which of the following categories will be kept Gopath?


Ashtadhyayi, Mahabhasya & Nirkuta are related to which of the following?


Which of the following city was known as Avanti in ancient India?


Which among the following Mahajanpada was located south most comparing to other Mahajanpadas?


Bhagwati sutra is related to which of the following religions?


who among the following had written “Rajavalipataka”?


A lion to the Huna Deer, A burning fever to the king of Sindhu, A troubler of the sleep of the Gurjara King, A bilious fever to that scent elephant, the lord of Gandhara, Destroyer of Skills of Latas, An axe to the Creeper, which is goddess to fortune of Malwa” Banabhatta has given these 6 attributes 
to _______?


Who among the following was not among the 9 gems (Navratna) of the Vikramaditya’s court ?


In which of the following modern area “Amri Culture” developed?


The first Buddhist Council was held at Rajagriha ________?


Who among the following annexed Anga to Magadha?


Which among the following best suits to Vajrasana?


Under which of the following trees, Buddha got enlightment?


Consider the following statements:

  1. Both Nalanda University and Vikramshila University Flourished during Pala Dynasty
  2. Both Nalanada University and Vikramshila University were destroyed by Khilji rulers

Which among the above statements hold correct?


Which among the following sites has given the evidence of an earliest recorded “Earthquake”?


The Bijak Inscription is related to which among the following kings?


In which among the following , the first description about the Bhils , a tribe of Rajasthan was found?


Who among the following established Mewar Kingdom in Rajasthan ?


Consider the following statements:

  1. Entire Smriti literature is Post Vedic Literature
  2. Entire Shruti Literature is Vedic Literature

Which among the above statements is / are correct?


Consider the following statements:

  1. The central theme of Kathopnishad is immortality
  2. The central theme of Mandukya Upnishad is Aum

Which among the above statements is / are correct?


Which among the following site has given an evidence that the people of Indus Valley Civilization were aware of tides ?


Who among the following first postulated that ” All objects in the Physical Universe are reducible to a finite number of atoms”?


Which among the following Buddhist Text is considered to have been recorded by Buddha himself?


Bring out the only incorrect statement:


Bring out the only incorrect statement:


Which among the following river is most described in Rig-Veda?


The Palaeomagnetic results obtained from India indicated that in the past Indian Landmass Moved to _______?


A village Porunthal came into the news as archeological excavations have established it one of the largest glass bead-manufacturing site in southern India dating back to 2nd century BC to 1st century AD. In which state  Porunthal is located?


In which of the following Buddhist councils, the Buddhism was divided into Sthaviravada and second Mahasamghikas?


Pravarasena-I is said to have performed all the seven sacrifices, viz. Agnistoma , Aptoryama, Vajapeya, Jyotishtoma, Brihaspatisava, Sadyaska and Ashvamedha. From which of the following dynasties, Pravarsena-I belonged to?


“Niska ” was used as a medium of exchange, in which of the following periods?


In Greek texts, who among the following has been mentioned as Amitrochates?


Who among the following were also known as Tocharians?


Who among the following was the Russia born Buddhist Monk in Tibet was a study partner and close associate of the 13th Dalai Lama?


Which of the following Chinese pilgrim gives account of the First Gupta Ruler?


We find the coins of a very less known prince called Kacha. Kacha is considered to have been from which of the following dynasties?


Who among the following was known to have worked in Medicine?


What was the name of the silver coins issued by Guptas?


Most of the Greeks, Kushanas & Shakas embraced Buddhism rather than Hinduism. This was because of the fact that ____?


The port of Tamralipti in the Gupta Era was located in which of the following parts of India?


Which among the following is not considered to be a Noble Truth as per the Buddhist Traditions?


Which among the following is considered to be the official law book of the Guptas?


Which among the following was the earliest drama of Kalidasa?


Which among the following Second Buddhist Council was held ?


Which of the following Indian playwright was imitated by Ceylon King Kumaradasa, the author of Janakiharana?


Which among the following correctly described the plot of the Indian Play Mudra Rakshasha?


Which among the following deals with the love story of a man called Charudatta and a nagarvadhu called “Vasanthasena”?


Which among the following dynasty was founded by Vindyashakti?


Which among the following emperors introduced the two laws of Vyavahar Samta and Danda Samata?


Which among the following is considered to be the official law book of the Guptas?


Which among the following is correct about Bhaddasala?


Which among the ancient Indian Play has referred to the defeat of Yavanas on the bank of River Sindhu in the hands of Vasumitra?


Bring out the only incorrect statement :


Which among the following was the capital of Vatsa Mahajanapada?


Which among the following is/ are considered to be the first tangible evidence of expansion of Buddhism?


In which year, Nalanda University was finally destroyed?


Who among the following was behind the “epoch making” discovery of Arthashastra that altered the false perception of the European scholars that Ancient Indians learnt the art of administration from the Greeks?


The Golden age of the “Gupta Literary Renaissance” is said to be the reign of whom among the following?


Which among the following is correct about Bhaddasala?


In Greek texts, who among the following has been mentioned as Amitrochates?


Which of the following dynasty was ruling in India, when Alexander invaded India?


Who among the following succeeded Pushyamitra Shunga?


What was “Halivakara” in the Gupta Era?


Bring out the only incorrect statement:


The Practice of Polyandry was common in which of the following in ancient India?


The Kadamba Dynasty was founded by whom among the following?


Which among the following emperors introduced the two laws of Vyavahar Samta and Danda Samata?


In Vedic Era, Akhyani is the goddess of which of the following?


Consider the following: 
1. Persian Deities 
2. Greek Deities 
3. Indian Deities 
Which among the above were engraved in the Kushana coins


In Buddhism, Patimonkha deals with which among the following?


Which among the following river is most described in Rig-Veda?


Who among the following started the practice of military governships in India , by leaving the military governors called “Strategos” in India?


Gandhara School of art is related to which of the following dynasties?


The ancient Indian text Panchasiddhantika deals with the 5 principles of which among the following?


In ancient India, the area around which among the following modern areas was known as “Golden Chersonese” ?


Which among the following was used to create sculptures in the Mathura school of art that flourished around 1st century AD?


Rigveda Samhita denotes one-fourth of its hymns to:


The temple of Konark was built by Narasimha of the:


 Dhravya guna shastra, which deals with several species of medicinal plants is a part of which among the following ?


Which among the following is NOT a correct statement in context with the Gupta Era?


There is only one Rock Edict in which Asoka talks about taxation. Which among the following is that edict?


“Tamso Ma Jyotirgamaya” ” Lead us from Darkness to Light” , this comes from which among the following Upanishadas?


Aihole Inscription is ascribed to which of the following rulers ?


Consider the following matches:

  1. Kena Upanishad : Sam Veda
  2. Katha Upanishad: Krishna yajurveda
  3. Prasna Upanishad : Samveda
  4. Mandukya Upanishad: atharvaveda

Which among the above is / are correct?


The Indus Valley Civilization has not been deciphered yet. Consider the following reasons:

  1. No knowledge about their language
  2. Small length of inscriptions
  3. Absence of bilingual texts

Which among the above is/ are correct reasons?


As per the ancient Indian Texts, the land between which among the following two rivers has been called “Brahamavarta”?


The sulbasutras of ancient Indian Scholar “Baudhayan” have reached to a most correct value of which among the following?


Which among the following sites of Indus Valley Civilization is located on the banks of River Indus in Larkana District of Pakistan?


Establishment of Svetambara as a separate sect within Jainism was resulted at ____?


The harappans used intaglio seals, made mostly of carved and fired steatite :


Which of the following deities were associated with the ‘Rig Vedic Period’ ?

  1. Purandara
  2. Varuna
  3. Savitri
  4. Usha

Choose the correct option:


Which of the following statements about the Gupta Empire under Samudragupta is NOT correct?


 In 1837, James Princep deciphered an Inscription in Brahmi script referring to a king called ‘Devanamapiya Piyadassi’. The celebrated monarch known by this epithet was :


Select the statement which is NOT correct regarding Kalidasa:


Who were Manu, Yajnavalkya , Narada and Brihaspati ?


The first astronomical observatory of Harappan Civilization has been found at which among the following ancient Indian sites?


The evidences of ‘pit-dwelling’ have been discovered from which of the following ancient Indian sites?


Which among the following Vedic Texts gives a systematic exposition of the ‘theory of rebirth’ for the first time?


The doctrine of ‘Vyuhavada’ is associated with which among the following Sects (or) cults of India?


The ‘Saptanga Theory of State’ (Theory of Seven Limbs of the State) was propounded by :


The “Siddhimatrika” script was one of the forms of writing Sanskrit in ancient India. This script, which made Sanskrit works known in China and Japan was developed during the times of ___:


Which among the following scripts of modern India have descended from the Sarda Script?
1. Gurmukhi
2. Dogri
3. Sindhi
Choose the correct option from the codes given below:


To perform which among the following functions, Rajukas were appointed by Asoka?


Which of the following is not an event in ancient Indian history in BC era?


Which of the following was most probably the first metal to be used in India?


The Jorwe culture of ancient India has been named after site of the same name in which of the following states?


Which of the following terms is not associated with a tool tradition of ancient India / World?


In stone age, the Microliths were most commonly found in which of the following ages?


Which of the following is a correct statement about Indus Valley Civilization?


Which of the following is not a correct statement about Buddhist Canonical literature?


Which of the following rulers were closely associated with Yuehzhi nomadic people?


Which of the following ancient Indian sages did not make substantial contribution to the YOGĀCĀRA (Yogachara) philosophical tradition?


Vindhyashakti was founder of which of the following dynasties in ancient India?

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Congress Relocations Ahead with Legislation to Promote Development of Advanced Nuclear Reactors

nela_thumb. png

  • Bipartisan legislative efforts in the Senate and the House show that Congress is major about promoting the development of innovative nuclear reactors.
  • In the Senate, Lisa Murkowski (R-AK) and Joe Manchin (D-WV), both members of the Senate Energy & Natural Resources Committte, reintroduced the Nuclear Energy Management Act (S.903).  Murkowski chairs the committee and Manchin is the ranking member.
  • In the Home Elaine Luria (D-VA) and Denver Riggleman (R-VA) introduced a buddy bill (H. R. 3306). Significantly, Luria served 20 years in the U.S. Navy reaching the rank of Leader and ran nuclear reactors on-board ships.

The legislation has four significant elements all created to open up courses forward to develop innovative nuclear reactors. Here’s a brief summary.

  • DOE would be required to total at least two advanced reactor demonstration tasks by the end of 2025 and two to five more additional projects by 2035. The Versatile Test Reactor, for which work is underway now, falls in the latter timeline with an operational target of 2026. As part of this effort DOE should come up with  10-year tactical strategy to guide its work in this location.
  • DOE would be required to boost production of high-assay low-enriched fuel (HALEU). It contains U-235 higher than 5% and less than 20%. Lots of brand-new sophisticated reactor designs include the use of this type of fuel, such as TRISO pebbles at 9 -10% U-235, in their styles.  See previous protection on this blog site Advanced Nuclear Fuels Open the Door to New Applications.
  • Development of a workforce capable of structure and operating these advanced designs is the goal of the legal section devoted to boosting DOE’s University Nuclear Program.  (See note at end about DOE’s current $49M financing decision to support this program.)
  • Purchase power arrangements with DOD facilities are included in the expenses which need one new agreement for an advanced reactor by 2023 and unique factor to consider to be given to other innovative designs afterwards with terms of the deals to run for up to 40 years.

Idaho Lab Director Testament in Support of NELA

At a hearing on the legislation held this past April , Idaho National Laboratory Director Mark Peters talked about to the significance of the targets NELA would set for completing demonstration jobs. (Full Text)

“We praise those objectives, acknowledging they are aggressive since they will drive the essential prioritization and strong sense of urgency that we need to have.”

Peters added that more than 50 advanced nuclear companies across North America are taking a look at a number of innovative reactor concepts, typically in collaboration with INL and other DOE national laboratories. Among the things they are looking at:

  • How to make reactors smaller sized and modular – little sufficient even to be mass-produced in factories.
  • How to use coolants other than light water.
  • How to operate at normal climatic pressure.
  • How to use physics in addition to engineering to keep reactors safe.
  • Some styles can even use recycled nuclear waste as fuel.

Peters said some energies, and the U.S. Department of Defense, are believing smaller sized. Westinghouse, NuScale, General Atomics, Oklo, X-energy, and others are working on micro reactor styles.

He stated these 2- to-20-MW reactors could provide electrical power for military bases and remote communities that currently run their electrical grids on expensive and highly polluting imported diesel fuel.  He included that micro reactors also are a good alternative for off-grid commercial and mining operations, and large energy consumers in developing nations.  See prior protection on this blogDOD looks for SMRs for tactical readiness at military bases

Prior Legislation to Assistance Advanced Nuclear Energy Efforts

Last December Congress passed an ambitious strategy for nuclear energy R&D.

The new law establishes a broad and sweeping required for civilian nuclear energy R&D and innovation advancement towards industrial implementation. Its arrangements consist of;

  • Provide research study facilities to promote clinical development and enable users from academia, the National Laboratories, and the private sector to make clinical discoveries pertinent for nuclear, chemical, and materials science engineering; and
  • Enable the private sector to partner with the National Laboratories to show unique reactor principles for the function of dealing with technical uncertainty associated with the previously mentioned objectives.

DOE’s Work on the Versatile Test Reactor

vtr-logo_thumb. pngU. S. Secretary of Energy Rick Perry announced (02/28/19) the launch of the Department of Energy’s Versatile Test Reactor (VTR), one of the top concern jobs specified in the Nuclear Energy Innovation Capabilities Act of 2017.

The focus of the Versatile Test Reactor will be to conduct quick turnaround screening and credentials of sophisticated fuels and materials to support advancement of innovative nuclear reactor designs. Fuels and products testing will include sodium-cooled, lead/LBE, HTGR, and molten salt styles.

vtr  core  conceptual  diagram

VTR Core Style Conceptual Diagram  Image: INL VTR P rogram

The reactor itself will be a sodium-cooled reactor using HALEU fuel with a start date targeting 2026. GE-Hitachi and Bechtel are adapting the design of the PRISM idea for the VTR objective.  Separately, GE-Hitachi is seeking an NRC license for the PRISM reactor style.

vtr  timeline

Verstile Test Reactor (VTR) Program Timeline. Image:  Kemal Pasamehmetoglu, INL E xecutive Director, presentation at Advanced Reactors Summit VI, San Diego, CA, January 29 -31, 2019.

According to the presentation by INL, 12 universities are teaming up with the VTR task in 9 key areas. Industry partnership with the university groups includes Framatome, Westinghouse, TerraPower, General Atomics, and GE-HItachi.

DOE financial investments in Advanced Reactors

In current months DOE has actually granted federal funds for advancement of innovative reactors to Westinghouse and Moltex. Like other DOE moneying, these are cost-share grants which require the moneyed firm to also invest its funds in the job.

Westinghouse – Last March DOE awarded Westinghouse $13 million for the eVinci (TM) Micro Reactor Nuclear Presentation System Preparedness Task is for Westinghouse and its group to prepare for the Nuclear Demonstration Unit (NDU) of the eVinci micro reactor through design, analysis, testing and licensing to manufacture, website and test the NDU by 2022.

Westinghouse has not made public info on significant collboration efforts with other firms or universities for the job. Also, it has not revealed a prospective consumer for the design.

Westinghouse told Power Magazine that it deals with numerous crucial obstacles. First among them is getting enough HALEU fuel. The Department of Energy is supporting multiple efforts to address that problem including a agreement to produce it by Centrus Corp by 2020 and deployment of a HALEU-based TRISO-X fuel fabrication pilot line at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Other issues which are dealt with by all SMR developers include the concern of how lots of deals are needed to be tattooed in their order books to get investors to supply the funds for factory production facilities.

Because the design is distinct, Power Publication kept in mind that Westinghouse will have to go through the long and expensive safety assessment procedure at the NRC. The company informed Power Publication it deals with “first of a kind” difficulties in licensing, instrumentation, remote reactor monitoring, and logistics.  See previous coverage on this blogWestinghous Launches New SMR E ffort

Moltex – In July DOE awarded Moltex Energy USA LLC $2.55 million to develop technologies that will be capable of reducing Stable Salt Reactor (SSR) building timelines to under three years. The funding, from the US D epartment of Energy’s Advanced Research Project Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), will be used to establish composite structural innovations (COST) for the reactor.

Moltex will work in partnership with Argonne National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Electric Power Research Study Institute, Purdue University and Vanderbilt University on the SSR, exploiting innovative innovations such as advanced structural composites and finishings to enable rapid building and construction.

Moltex Energy has secured a considerable financial investment from IDOM Consulting, Engineering, Architecture SAU, a prestigious and innovative global consulting & engineering company with a big, skilled and effective nuclear engineering practice worldwide. The multi-million dollar (USD) investment allows Moltex to broaden its New Brunswick office and speed up its pre-licensing development through CNSC’s Vendor Design Evaluation (VDR).

World Nuclear News reports that Moltex last year signed an contract with the New Brunswick Energy Solutions Corporation and NB P ower to construct a presentation SSR-W at the Point Lepreau nuclear power plant site in Canada. The second-generation SSR imagined by the business, which will usage uranium fuel, is intended at those countries which do not have existing nuclear reactors and for that reason have no waste to burn. The business likewise imagines a thorium breeder version of the reactor.

Also, at that website ARC N uclear and New Brunswick Power (NB Power)  have concurred to work together to take the essential steps to establish, license, and develop an advanced little modular reactor (SMR) based on ARC Nuclear’s Gen IV sodium-cooled fast reactor technology.  See previous coverage on ths blog siteArgonne’s IFR to Live Again at Point Lepreau, New Brunswick

University Programs – On June 28, 2019, in its latest round of financing, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced $49.3 million in nuclear energy research, center gain access to, crosscutting innovation advancement, and infrastructure awards for 58 advanced nuclear technology jobs in 25 states.

The awards are part of DOE’s nuclear energy programs called the Nuclear Energy University Program (NEUP), the Nuclear Science User Facilities (NSUF) program, and crosscutting research projects. DOE kept in mind that considering that 2009 it has actually granted $678 million in funding through its university programs.

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How Australia could get cheap power, conserve the world and get rich

How Australians might get more affordable power, aid conserve the world AND grow the economy – all by switching to nuclear power

  • A evaluation of the laws prohibiting nuclear power stations is being put forward 
  • Modular reactors and Thorium means nuclear power is more secure and more effective 
  • Some MPs say the technology could reduce emissions and advantage the economy  

Australians could slash their power costs, reduce environmental pollution and grow the economy by investing in brand-new power generation technology, some politicians are declaring. 

During the 2019 election project, Prime Minister Scott Morrison was asked about nuclear power by a group of MPs who have steadily been pressing for a review into the problem given that.

Australia has one of the biggest Uranium deposits in the world and we currently mine the mineral – creating greenhouse emissions – however we export it to other nations to use for power.

A back-of-the-envelope computation suggests Australian consumers can save up to 10 c a kW/h, if nuclear energy is introduced into the country.  

Australians  might  slash  their  power  expenses,  minimize  ecological  contamination,  and  grow  the  economy  by  investing  in  new  power  generation  innovation,  some  politicians  are  claiming

Australians could slash their power expenses, minimize environmental contamination, and grow the economy by investing in brand-new power generation technology, some politicians are claiming 

The calculation is based on the assumption that electrical power produced through nuclear energy is sold for C13c a kW/h in Ontario, Canada and US12c a kW/h in Illinois, United States.

The average energy prices in Sydney are about 29.4 c a kW/h.

Federal Union backbenchers Keith Pitt and James McGrath delivered a letter to Mr Morrison this week promoting for nuclear power and called for an inquiry into its benefits for the country. 

NSW One Nation leader Mark Latham likewise recently introduced a expense in the state parliament to normalise the treatment of uranium mining and nuclear energy. 

The idea was backed by NSW D eputy Premier John Barilaro who recently participated in a workshop on innovative modular reactors in the United States. 

Advocates for the technology say these brand-new nuclear power stations are able to deliver steady, carbon emissions complimentary power at a portion of the expense of older reactors.  

One such business, Nuscale Power, have actually designed a modular reactor that would take up one per cent of the space of a traditional reactor. 

The company also states they can make the reactors much cheaply than the older styles and they are likewise much much safer – eliminating lots of of the valves and pumps. 

Another advancement in nuclear power is the possible usage of Thorium as a power source in contrast to conventional Uranium used in reactor cores. 

Thorium is more abundant and more effective at producing electricity than Uranium. 

The main hurdle for nuclear power stations in Australia is that they are restricted under environmental law. 

The growing group of MPs, nevertheless, states the Australian public desires these laws changed. 

The  case  for  nuclear  power  for  consumers  might  be  strengthened  even  more  when  the  carbon  emissions  tax  is  considered

The case for nuclear power for consumers could be strengthened even more when the carbon emissions tax is thought about 

The nuclear concern was ‘a dispute we are all set to have’ and ‘in our view, the innovation has moved on and small, modular reactors and thorium need to be investigated,’ Mr Pitt informed The Australian.   

‘There is strong assistance coming from most people, remarkably among young people. I believe the culture today means people are better notified,’ he said. 

An SBS V iceland poll in October last year discovered 61 per cent of respondents were in favour of lifting the nuclear energy ban. 

Similarly, and ABC survey in March found 57 per cent of respondents in favour of nuclear energy as a power source. 

The case for nuclear power for customers could be enhanced even more when the carbon emissions tax is considered. 

These taxes, which use greatly to coal based power plants – are passed onto consumer increasing monthly power costs. 

Some critics, nevertheless, say the expense to set up a nuclear energy plant is much greater than setting up a coal or gas based energy plant. 

Also the expense to fix a breakdown in a nuclear plant is pricey and electrical power created through nuclear energy isn’t a long term option.

It is stated those advocating for nuclear power plants have found another reason to subsidise the building and construction and mining industries.




Answering Concerns About Nuclear Power

It seems every time I write even tangentially about nuclear power the very same remarks crop up, with the same objections. So I desire to check out, as finest I can, the answers to those objections. First here are a few caveats. On this topic I am acting as a science journalist, not an professional. This is my personal synthesis of publicly offered details. I likewise consider blog sites to be as much discussions as essays, so welcome any thoughtful feedback, specifically if you include links to back up your assertions, or if you bring authentic expertise to bear. Sometimes, in truth, I particularly select a subject to blog about due to the fact that I desire to “crowd source” it in the remarks.

Overall, while I think that nuclear power is most likely to be a important component of our attempts at lessening carbon release from energy production, I am not otherwise “pro-nuclear.” I have no canine in that hunt, I simply want the best science-based services to our energy facilities issues. I likewise think that no source of energy is perfect. They all have compromises. So my technique is – what are all the risks and advantages to nuclear, and are they eventually worth it in the end, compared to all the options?

I have taken the exact same method to this question that I take to all questionable concerns – what do all sides say, and who tends to have the better or last arguments? At this point I find the pro-nuclear position to be more compelling than the anti-nuclear position. In fact I haven’t heard any really engaging arguments versus using nuclear power. There are some genuine points against nuclear, they just wear’t include up to a factor not to use it, in my viewpoint. So let me go through them.

Nuclear Energy Safety

Safety is typically a keystone to objections about nuclear power. However, it is pretty clear that nuclear power is the most safe type of energy production we have. We requirement to do an whole lifecycle analysis for each type of power – production of resources (usually mining), operation, and ecological effects (including waste and contamination). Every single recommendation I have actually discovered suggests that nuclear power, when we consider deaths per terawatt hour (TWh), is by far the most safe form of energy production.  Burning brown coal has 467 times the death rate of nuclear (including accidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima).

In fact a current research study approximates that nuclear power, by displacing fossil fuel production, has already conserved 1.84 million lives, and possibly can conserve millions more – simply thinking about air contamination. This study utilized an estimate of 5,000 deaths from nuclear power between 1971 and 2009, which is a affordable estimate. But even if you think the number should be an order of magnitude greater, nuclear still conserved about 1.8 million lives.

Here is another analysis. Nuclear is the most safe form of energy even if you use the higher end of the death estimates. It is even much safer than wind and solar, generally from mining the components required in their building, but likewise in their setup and operation. Even if you usage the crazy high end of death estimates – it’s still much safer than fossil fuel.

Part of the factor for its relative safety is that nuclear produces so much energy. In order to change that energy, we would requirement to burn a lot of coal, or produce a lot of solar panels. So even low-level dangers add up to a excellent deal. Nuclear mishaps, however, have a different psychological impact. However the best choices will be made by crunching the numbers, not reacting mentally to the drama of events.

I will also include that the large nuclear mishaps that have occurred so far were preventable, and far more containable. Chernobyl was a comedy of mistakes – it didn’t even have a containment facility. Fukushima had design flaws that must have been corrected (such as having the backup generators in low locations). Lessons learned suggests nuclear power is getting more secure. One counter-argument that frequently comes up is – do we truly trust dysfunctional federal governments around the world to operate nuclear securely? This is a fair point, but there are 2 effective counterpoints. The first is that we have an worldwide organization, the IAEA, to monitor nuclear safety. The 2nd is that those exact same governments will be operating whatever type of energy replaces for nuclear, with the very same issues. Do we trust these very same governments to check dams, have safe coal-mining operations, or rare-earth processing? Perhaps the presence of the IAEA and worldwide standards makes nuclear a much better choice for this factor.

What About Nuclear Waste?

The security concern is, I think, a home run for nuclear. So those who wear’t like nuclear power frequently argue that we have to think about all possible future deaths from nuclear waste and pollution. Concerning radioactive contamination from the operation of nuclear power plants and the existence of nuclear waste, again we need to put this into perspective. First I would note that coal burning produces more radioactive waste in the type of fly ash than nuclear power. Coal includes uranium and thorium, and burning it into fly ash focuses those components. Research studies show that more radioactive contaminants get into the environment around coal plants than nuclear plants.

The genuine problem is high-level radioactive waste, the invested fuel rods and parts of the reactor that are highly irradiated. These need to be saved safely for thousands of years. Right now it is fair to state that we are not effectively storing nuclear waste long term. Most waste is saved on site.  This problem, however, is totally political. That doesn’t mean it isn’t a genuine issue – and this gets back to the point above. We need functional governments that can effectively handle the complexity of something like nuclear power.

In the US, for example, we have Yucca Mountain. We might securely store much of our nuclear waste there, and establish other websites as essential. However worry of nuclear and old-fashioned NIMBY attitudes prevent this. We have the service – we just lack the political will to use it.

I have to put this into context as to what my viewpoint about nuclear is. My position is that nuclear can be a safe and efficient part of our energy facilities. My position is not that our present nuclear infrastructure is ideal or without significant issues. Rather – we have the service to these problems. We put on’t need any scientific breakthrough. Using existing innovation we can have safe nuclear power and offer with all the waste. We need to do that. If we had a appropriate discussion in this country about all our choices, I believe nuclear would emerge as one great alternative, at least for this century.

Further, next generation nuclear power plant designs could be ready as early as 2030. These are the plants we ought to be building, not 20 th century styles. These brand-new plants might even burn the spent fuel from older plants, and they would produce less waste themselves. There are also thorium reactors, which have a various set of strengths and weaknesses but fruit and vegetables less long-term waste.

The bottom line, in my viewpoint, is that nuclear waste is not a deal-killer. It is totally manageable.

Solar and Wind are Less expensive and Better

I am a huge fan of solar and wind energy, and do anticipate they will play an increasing role in our energy infrastructure. I have solar panels on my roof. They are also getting gradually less expensive. However here’s the thing – nuclear vs renewables is not truly the current option we are dealing with. Nuclear power is baseload energy – constant production of large quantities of power however below the minimum need. (Future reactors might be more scalable, however that is a different point.) Sustainable energy is not baseload. It is also not on-demand. It is intermittent. This means that we need energy storage in order to make utilize of intermittent sources, like wind and solar.

For now we can use the grid itself for storage – putting energy into the grid when producing more than need, and taking from the grid when need surpasses production. However this just works when the periodic source is a minority production. In order for wind and solar to supply the comparable of baseload power, we requirement huge grid storage. We don’t have that right now, and likely won’t have it for decades. This does need a innovation development, and you can not anticipate nor count on such advancements.

So, for the foreseeable future, there is no choice between nuclear and renewables, they serve different functions in the energy facilities. Rather, the option is in between nuclear and other forms of baseload production, which is mainly fossil fuel plants, and primarily coal. There is some hydroelectric (also more dangerous than nuclear), but this is location-dependent. I think the experience in Germany is salient here. They phased out nuclear in favor of renewables, and ended up having to burn more coal. Their carbon emissions did not decrease in spite of using more rewewables (there was a current decline, but only because of current warmer winters). They now realize they need to have phased out coal very first, and worry about nuclear later.

What about the point that nuclear is reasonably costly? Once Again – you requirement to do a appropriate comparison. This question is somewhat controversial, but here are some helpful facts. The cost of nuclear has actually been coming down, from ” 3.5 cents/kilowatt-hour (kwh) in 1987 to below 2 cents/kwh in 2001 (in 2001 dollars). By 2005, the average operating expense was 1.7 cents/kwh.” The market is focused on bringing the expense down further, with smaller more efficient plants.

But we also have to think about that the fossil fuel market is subsidized. We should stop fossil fuel aids, and rather tax carbon. Carbon is a enormous externalized expense, and nuclear’s maybe primary advantage is that the energy is carbon complimentary (there is carbon launched in building the plants, but not in operation). If we correctly price carbon, relative to the likely expenses of worldwide warming, nuclear suddenly ends up being really cost effective compared to the fossil fuel plants it will change. Once again – the contrast to renewables is not fair – they are not baseload production. If you do make a contrast, then you have to consider likewise the expense of grid storage. Right now, in a way, renewables are unjustly cheap because they are selecting the low-hanging fruit, not requiring grid storage to be helpful. Include the cost of all those batteries, and the computation is different.

The big point is – the factor we need nuclear is to avoid the worst results of international warming. So when thinking about the cost of nuclear we have to consider the benefit of all that carbon we are not releasing.

It’s too late

This is typically the last objection, and also, in my opinion, the weakest argument. When I manage all the arguments versus nuclear, typically I hear – well, it was a great alternative 20 years ago, but now it’s too late to mitigate global warming. I think this is nonsense. In 20 years, I bet, people will be making the very same argument.

First – we are partially talking about delaying the decommissioning of existing nuclear plants. (Again – see Germany.) This take literally zero time. By extending their life-span, we can reduce the number of coal plants that would otherwise change them. This can buy us time to develop those next generation reactors. We need to likewise check out ways (including investing money as needed) to speed up the procedure of building brand-new plants, which is mainly due to red tape anyhow.

Even if it takes 20 years to bring new plants on line, I wear’t believe in 2040 we will have the carbon emission problem resolved. I likewise wager we will still be burning coal in 2040. It’s likewise not as if it will ever be too late to do something about international warming. Even if we miss out on our targets for preventing the even worse results, that doesn’t mean we provide up at that point. There is still benefit in reducing the harm.

The time for nuclear is now. We have the technology to develop safe and cost reliable plants, and to deal with the resulting waste, and it is a far much better choice than the types of energy it will change. Nuclear will eventually save millions of lives and reduce our carbon emissions. It will purchase us time, 50 -100 years, to more completely establish sustainable energy and grid storage options. Hey – we might even develop nuclear fusion in the next 50 -100 years.

If we plan out our method to minimize carbon from our energy facilities, nuclear has a clear role to play. I wear’t think we can satisfy our climate goals without it. And once again – we have the innovation. All we requirement is a clear conversation and the political will. I may be wrong, and if I am then I am delighted to be tested so. Simply do so with proper reasoning and recommendations.



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